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ICANN Publishes the First Monthly Report on Generic Top-Level Domain Security Threats

LOS ANGELES – 4 February 2019 – Today, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) published the first monthly report providing statistics and insight into security threats to generic top-level domains (gTLDs). This report of the Domain Abuse Activity Reporting (DAAR) System provides the first in an ongoing series of domain name security threat reports which will be released on a monthly basis. This release is accompanied by a context document explaining the methodology behind the DAAR System. Monthly reports from previous months (January 2018 through Dec 2018) will be published before the end of February 2019.

DAAR was created in response to community requests for neutral, reliable, persistent, and reproducible data from which security threat and abuse analyses could be performed. The DAAR project has produced a system using a published and community-vetted methodology for studying and reporting domain name registration and security threat behavior across top-level domain (TLD) registries and registrars. The overarching purpose of DAAR is to aggregate and analyze security threats as monitored by the publicly-available domain reputation providers and report findings to the ICANN community. This data can be used to facilitate informed policy decisions.

DAAR provides only gTLD registry reports at the moment. More detailed registrar portfolio reporting would require identifiable domain name registration data. A system that will collect and analyze the necessary registrar data remains under development. ICANN's Security, Stability, and Resiliency (SSR) team expects to add registrar reporting in the future. Inclusion of country code TLD (ccTLD) registries, where the ccTLD registry information is voluntarily provided by the ccTLD administrator, is also planned for future releases.


Access the DAAR January 2019 report here [PDF, 514 KB] and the context document here [PDF, 72 KB].

For more information, visit DAAR's dedicated webpage by clicking here.


ICANN's mission is to help ensure a stable, secure, and unified global Internet. To reach another person on the Internet, you need to type an address – a name or a number – into your computer or other device. That address must be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN helps coordinate and support these unique identifiers across the world. ICANN was formed in 1998 as a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with a community of participants from all over the world.

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."