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ICANN 提名新 gTLD 后备注册管理执行机构

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今天,ICANN 公布了当选的三家来自不同地理区域的后方应急注册管理执行机构 (EBERO),这标志着由机构群体制定的新 gTLD 计划的实施工作达到了一个新的里程碑。选择中国互联网络信息中心 (CNNIC)、Neustar, Inc. 和 Nominet 这三家机构是为了确保在新 TLD 运营商出现问题时,新 gTLD 内的域名仍可继续得到解析。

如果某个注册管理执行机构暂时性地或在其业务过渡期间,未能提供或无法维持五项注册管理机构关键职能,后方应急注册管理执行机构才会发挥作用。这三家机构分布在世界的不同地区,可降低自然灾害在任何时候对其同时产生影响的几率。

EBERO 可减轻因新 TLD 运营商出现问题而可能影响域名系统稳定性和安全性的风险。但是,EBERO 所能提供的服务毕竟是有限的。例如,EBERO 将维持注册管理机构关键职能,但无法提供任何其他 TLD 运营商可能会向其客户提供的服务(如网站托管或网络分析)。EBERO 肩负的关键职能包括:

  1. 已注册域名的 DNS 解析
  2. 共享注册系统的运营
  3. 提供 Whois 服务
  4. 注册管理机构数据托管保证金
  5. 遵照 DNSSEC 要求对正确签署的区域进行维护

三家当选机构符合严格的技术要求,充分证明了他们在运营域名服务、注册数据目录服务和可扩展供应协议服务领域具有多年丰富经验。

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."