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拟定域名冲突分析项目 (NCAP) 的项目规划草案

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评议开放日期: 2018 年 3 月 2 日 截止日期: 2018 年 4 月 18 日
发起组织: 安全与稳定咨询委员会 (SSAC)
类别/标签:
  • 顶级域
  • 安全性/稳定性
简介: ICANN 的安全与稳定咨询委员会 (Security and Stability Advisory Committee, SSAC) 现已草拟了域名冲突分析项目 (Name Collision Analysis Project, NCAP) 的项目规划。应 ICANN 董事会在决议 2017.11.02.29 至 2017.11.02.31 之中提出的请求,这份规划详细介绍了研究域名冲突的拟定方案。这份拟定的 SSAC 调查旨在促进针对字符串冲突制定政策,减少因授权这类字符串而给域名系统 (Domain Name System, DNS) 的稳定和安全带来的潜在危害。SSAC 现针对这份规划征询社群建议,而后该组织将对这份规划定稿,达成共识建议并将其提交给董事会进行审批、启动项目。
链接: https://www.icann.org/public-comments/ncap-project-plan-2018-03-02-en

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."