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从根域中移除11个测试性国际化顶级域名

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ICANN非常高兴地宣布针对域名系统根域下的国际化顶级域名(IDN)的测试阶段已经成功结束。

2007年10月9日,ICANN在域名系统根域下插入了11个国际化域名(IDNs),即英文单词"test"以及以另外9中文字表示的10种不同语言。使用这些域名旨在在国际化域名顶级域名(IDN TLD)生成部署之前,确定将国际化域名纳入顶级域名(TLD)后对根域运营可能带来的负面影响。为了检测域名,ICANN设立了一系列的网站,在11个测试性顶级域名下纳入了"example.test"的翻译域名。这些网站使得互联网用户能够在网页上创建子页面,用于测试并讨论使用上述指定语言之一来访问域名时出现的一些问题。

在测试国际化域名顶级域名取得积极成效后,ICANN在2009年11月启动了国际化域名国家和地区代码快速通道流程,使得具有资格的国家和地区均可申请启用国际化域名顶级域名(IDN TLD)。截至今日,域名系统根域中已经授权了35个国际化域名国家和地区代码顶级域名(IDN ccTLD)(分别代表了25个国家和地区)。

在测试取得成功并经过了几年的域名使用后,现在已经无需继续测试域名系统根域下授权的国际化域名顶级域名(IDN TLD)了。本文旨在通知社群,根据ICANN董事会批准的规程IDN部署测试规程,测试性的IDN TLD将于2013年10月31日从域名系统根域中移除。


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."