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Root Server System Advisory Committee

The Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC) advises the ICANN Board and community on matters relating to the operation, administration, security, and integrity of the root server system, as outlined in its charter from the ICANN Bylaws.

The RSSAC consists of representatives from the organizations responsible for operating global root name service. On 18 July 2013, the ICANN Board approved the initial membership and leadership of the RSSAC, with new representatives also appointed on 26 June 2014.

Root Server Operator Representative Alternate Term Expires
Cogent Paul Vixie Brad Belanger 31 December 2020
ICANN Matt Larson Terry Manderson 31 December 2021
Internet Systems Consortium Fred Baker (Co-Chair) Jeff Osborn 31 December 2021
NASA Keith Bluestein Tom Miglin 31 December 2019
Netnod Lars-Johan Liman Patrik Fältström 31 December 2021
RIPE Network Coordination Centre Kaveh Ranjbar Anand Buddhdev 31 December 2020
University of Maryland Karl Reuss Gerry Sneeringer 31 December 2019
University of Southern California Wes Hardaker Suzanne Woolf 31 December 2020
US Army Research Laboratory Howard Kash Kenneth Renard 31 December 2019
US Department of Defense Kevin Wright Ryan Stephenson 31 December 2019
Verisign, Inc. Brad Verd (Co-Chair) Matt Weinberg 31 December 2021
WIDE Project Jun Murai Hiro Hotta 31 December 2020

The RSSAC also consists of representatives of the organizations responsible for the maintenance of the authoritative root zone as non-voting members. Liaisons from external organizations and groups also participate as non-voting members.

IANA Functions Operator Naela Sarras (PTI)
Root Zone Maintainer Duane Wessels (Verisign)
Liaison from the Internet Architecture Board Daniel Migault
Liaison from the SSAC Russ Mundy
Liaison to the ICANN Board of Directors Kaveh Ranjbar
Liaison to the Customer Standing Committee Lars-Johan Liman
Liaison to the Root Zone Evolution Review Committee Brad Verd


The RSSAC holds periodic teleconferences and meets in person at IETF meetings and ICANN meetings. Minutes from meetings of the previous RSSAC and the current RSSAC (where available) can be viewed here.


The Caucus of DNS and root server system experts will be responsible for the essential work of the RSSAC. More information about the Caucus can be viewed here.


The RSSAC may publish advisories, correspondence, reports, and statements within its mandate of advising the ICANN community and Board as well as documents related to its own administration and work. More information about RSSAC Publications can be viewed here.

Frequently Asked Questions

The RSSAC maintains a list of Frequently Asked Questions that can be found here.


The RSSAC maintains an annual workplan that can be found here.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."