Internationalized Domain Name variant label(IDN variant label)
Internationalized Domain Name variant top-level domain(IDN variant TLD)
Internationalized Domain Names in Applications(IDNA)
Internet Architecture Board(IAB)
An Internet governance body that provides the long-range technical direction for the Internet to grow and continually evolve as a platform for global communication and innovation. The IAB is represented on ICANN’s Technical Liaison Group. This group provides the ICANN Board with authoritative information concerning the technical standards associated with ICANN’s activities.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA)
The suite of Internet coordination functions relating to ensuring the assignment of globally unique protocol parameters, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and the Internet Protocol (IP) address space.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority functions(IANA functions)
Functions involving the coordination of the unique identifiers and codes that keep the Internet running smoothly. IANA functions include management of Internet number resources, management of the Domain Name System root zone, and maintenance of the authoritative registries for many of the codes and numbers used in the Internet protocols.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Naming Function Review(IFR)
This is an accountability mechanism to ensure that Public Technical Identifiers (PTI) meets the needs and expectations of its naming customers. The IANA Naming Function Review (IFR) evaluates PTI's performance of the IANA naming function against the contractual requirements in the IANA Naming Function Contract.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority stewardship transition(IANA stewardship transition)
The final step in a nearly two-decade-long process by the U.S. Department of Commerce to transition the coordination and management of the Domain Name System to the private sector. This step involved the transition of the IANA functions from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) to the global multistakeholder community.
After 800 hours in meetings, more than 32,000 emails, and numerous public comments, a package of proposals developed by the global community was submitted to NTIA. By 30 September 2016, all implementation tasks required for the transition were complete. When ICANN’s contract with NTIA expired on 1 October 2016, the coordination and management of the Internet’s unique identifiers officially transitioned to the global multistakeholder community.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN)
ICANN’s mission is to help ensure a stable, secure, and unified global Internet. To reach another person on the Internet, you type an address – a name or a number – into your computer or other device. That address must be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN helps coordinate and support these unique identifiers across the world. ICANN was formed in 1998 as a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with a community of participants from all over the world.
Internet Engineering Steering Group(IESG)
Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF)
A large, open, international community of network designers, developers, operators, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the stable operation of the Internet. The IETF develops Internet standards for the communication protocols that enable the flow of data over the network.
Internet Exchange Point(IXP)
A physical location where different networks meet and exchange Internet traffic through a switch. IXPs are usually placed in neutral locations between Internet service providers (ISPs) and content delivery networks. Using IXPs allows networks to connect directly rather than going through third-party networks, and can help bring down costs and speed up routing efficiency.
Internet Governance Forum(IGF)
A multistakeholder platform established by the United Nations in 2006 that supports global dialogue on policy issues relating to Internet sustainability, robustness, security, stability, and development. At the IGF annual meeting, delegates from across the world meet to exchange information and share best practices.
Other forums, called National and Regional Initiatives (NRIs), are organized at the national, regional, and subregional level, and include Youth IGFs. These forums provide platforms where members can discuss matters of Internet policy affecting local stakeholders.
Unique values and codes that enable Internet components (e.g., network equipment, protocols, servers) to operate in a unified and predictable manner. ICANN’s mission is to ensure the stable and secure operation of the Internet's unique identifier systems within its scope. Among the Internet identifiers that ICANN coordinates are:
The set of rules that govern how devices communicate over the Internet. The Internet Protocol specifies the format of the packets that devices use to transmit messages through the network. It also specifies the addressing scheme that routers use to transmit messages to their destinations.
Internet Protocol address(IP address)
The Internet Protocol has two addressing schemes.
- Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses have a length of 32 bits, which allows for just over four billion unique identifiers. IPv4 addresses are written as a sequence of four decimal values ranging from 0 through 255, separated by dots. A typical IPv4 address looks like this: 188.8.131.52.
- Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses have a length of 128 bits, which allows for 340 undecillion unique identifiers. IPv6 addresses are written using sequences of hexadecimal values, separated by colons. A typical IPv6 address looks like this: 2620:0:2d0:200::7.