Reference LGR for script: Telugu (Telu) lgr-second-level-telugu-full-variant-script-24jan24-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2024-01-24
LGR Version 2 (Second Level Reference LGR)
Language und-Telu (Telugu Script)
Unicode Version 11.0.0



  • These instructions cover how to adopt an LGR based on this reference LGR for a given zone and how to prepare the file for deposit in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices.
  • As described the IANA procedure
    an LGR MUST contain the following elements in its header:
    • Script or Language Designator (see below for guidance)
    • Version Number (this must increase with each amendment to the LGR, even if the updates are limited to the header itself)
    • Effective Date (the date at which the policy becomes applicable in operational use)
    • Registry Contact Details (contact name, email address, and/or phone number)
  • The following information is optional:
    • Document creation date
    • Applicable Domain(s)
    • Changes made to the Reference LGR before adopting

Please add or modify the following items in the XML source code for this file before depositing the document in the IANA Repository.

Meta Data

Note: version numbers start at 1. RFC 7940 recommends using simple integers. The version comment is optional, please replace or delete the default comment. Version comments may be used by some tools as part of the page header.

<version comment="[Please replace (or delete) the optional comment]">[Please fill in version number, starting at 1]</version>

<date>[Please fill in with publication date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</date>

<validity-start>[Please fill in effective date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</validity-start>

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<scope type="domain">[Please provide, in ".domain" format]</scope>

Registry Contact Information:

Please fill in the Registry Contact Details.

Change History

If you made technical modifications to the LGR, please summarize them in the Change History (and also note the details in the appropriate section of the description).


Registry Contact Details

Label Generation Rules for the Telugu Script


This document specifies a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Telugu script for the second level domain or domains identified above. This LGR contains the full set of cross-script variants required for use with the following scripts: Kannada. The starting point for the development of this LGR can be found in the related Root Zone LGR [RZ-LGR-Telu]. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940]. This LGR is adapted from the “Reference LGR for the Second Level for the Telugu Script” [Ref-LGR-und-Telu], for details, see Change History below.

For details and additional background on the Telugu script, see “Proposal for a Telugu Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)” [Proposal-Telugu].


The repertoire contains 63 code points for letters catering to the Telugu language written using the Telugu script. Several other languages with [EGIDS] levels above 4 were also considered in the analysis. The repertoire is a subset of [Unicode 11.0.0]. For details, see Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Telugu]. (The proposal cited has been adopted for the Telugu script portion of the Root Zone LGR.)

For the second level, the repertoire has been augmented with the ASCII digits, U+0030 0 to U+0039 9, plus U+002D - HYPHEN-MINUS, for a total of 74 repertoire elements.

Any code points outside the Telugu Script repertoire that are targets for out-of-repertoire variants would be included here only if the variant is listed in this file. In this case they are identified as a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. Whether or not they are listed, they do not form part of the repertoire.

Repertoire Listing: Each code point or range is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, one or more tag values denoting character category, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire, see “References” below. Comments provide alternate names for some code points.


Unlike other LGRs for this script, which only incude the variant definitions needed when used as standalone in their zone, this LGR contains the full set of variants needed for zones shared by more than one script. Where appropriate, cross-script variants have been defined to mutually exclude labels from different scripts that could otherwise be substituted by the users. To meet the requirement for variant transitivity, additional in-script variants may be defined as needed. Once a label has been delegated for one script, any of its variant labels consisting entirely of cross-script variants would be blocked. Any label containing at least one code point that is not a cross-script variant would be considered distinct. Because of that, even large numbers of defined cross-script variants generally do not lead to a high percentage of labels experiencing a collision across scripts.

The definition of variants included in this LGR contributes to the definition of variants in the Common LGR. Even though this LGR contains the full set of variants affecting this script, use of the Common LGR is required for actual mitigation of issues caused by using multiple languages or scripts in the same zone. For details, see Section 3, "Use of Multiple Reference LGRs in the Same Zone" in [Level-2-Overview].

The Telugu and Kannada scripts are closely related to each other and there are many code points in both scripts which can be confused with code points in the other script. This LGR defines many cross-script variants with Kannada. There are no in-script variants defined for Telugu. For details, see Section 6, “Variants” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Digit Variants: The Telugu reference LGR does not include native digits, so there are no semantic variants defined.

There are some homoglyph relations between Kannada and Telugu native digits, however, as this LGR does not support native digits, they do not give rise to variants.

By transitivity, all ASCII digits are semantic variants of any cross-script native digits. Any Telugu label that is otherwise a cross-script variant of a label in another script, will remain a variant if both labels add digits of the same value in the same position, irrespective of whether they are ASCII digits or (in the case of the other script) native digits.

If native digits were supported instead of common digits, they would require variants to corresponding Kannada digits.

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent labels should be blocked. There is no preference among these labels.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in this LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

The Telugu orthography superficially resembles a series of circles and semi-circles. Most consonants carry a tick mark called ‘talakattu’. The writing system is classified as abugida type or alphasyllabary. The alphabet consists of vowels, consonants and modifiers. Each of these vowels and consonants has one or more secondary allographs.

Consonants: The Telugu consonants contain an implicit vowel /a/. More details in Section 3.5.4, “The Consonants” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Vowels and dependent vowel signs: There are fourteen vowel characters in the common inventory of which one is rarely used: U+0C0C . It and the two obsolete vowels, U+0C60 and U+0C61 , are excluded from this LGR. Each vowel, except U+0C05 has a dependent vowel sign, modifying the vowel of the consonant they follow. These signs may have different appearance depending on the size and shape of the consonant that functions as an anchor. More details in Section 3.5.1, “The vowels and vowel modifiers” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Anusvara or sunna: The Anusvara or sunna represents a homorganic nasal before the corresponding consonant and as a substitute to transcribe word final /mu/. Essentially, it substitutes a cluster of a Nasal Consonant+Halant before a consonant. More details in Section 3.5.2, “The Anusvara or sunna” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Visarga: Visarga denotes the glottal check.

Halant: A special sign is needed whenever the implicit vowel in the preceding consonant is stripped off. This symbol is known as the Halant. (Any vowel sign will also override the implicit vowel). More details in Section 3.5.1, “The vowels and vowel modifiers” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Common Digits: U+0030 0 to U+0039 9 are the set of digits from the ASCII range.

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Common Rules

By default, the LGR includes the rules and actions to implement the following restrictions mandated by the IDNA protocol. They are marked with ⍟.

  • Hyphen Restrictions — restrictions on the allowable placement of hyphens (no leading/ending hyphen and no hyphen in positions 3 and 4). These restrictions are described in Section of RFC 5891 [150]. They are implemented here as context rule on U+002D (-) HYPHEN-MINUS.
  • Leading Combining Marks — restrictions on the allowable placement of combining marks (no leading combining mark). This rule is described in Section of RFC 5891 [150].

Default Actions

This LGR includes the default actions for LGRs as well as the action needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks. They are marked with ⍟. For a description see [RFC 7940].

Telugu-specific Rules

These rules have been formulated so that they can be adopted for LGR specification.

The following symbols are used in the WLE rules:
C → Consonant
M → Matra (Dependent vowel signs)
V → Vowel
B → Anusvara (Bindu)
X → Visarga
H → Halant / Virama

The rules are:

  • 1. H: must be preceded by C
  • 2. M: must be preceded by C
  • 3. X: must be preceded by V, M or C
  • 4. B: must be preceded by V, M or C
  • 6. V: cannot be preceded by H

More details in Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation Rules (WLE)” in [Proposal-Telugu]. The numbering of the rules given here, follows that document.

Methodology and Contributors

The LGR in this document has been adapted from the corresponding Reference LGR for the Second Level. The Second Level Reference LGR for the Telugu Script was developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, based on the Root Zone LGR for the Telugu script and information contained or referenced therein; see [RZ-LGR-Telu]. Suitable extensions for the second level have been applied according to the [Guidelines] and with community input. The original proposal for a Root Zone LGR for the Telugu script, that this reference LGR is based on, was developed by the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel (NBGP). For more information on methodology and contributors to the underlying Root Zone LGR, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Telugu], as well as [RZ-LGR-Overview].

Changes from Version Dated 15 December 2020

Unicode Version has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 24 January 2024

Adopted from the Second Level Reference LGR for the Telugu Script [Ref-LGR-und-Telu] without normative changes.


The following general references are cited in this document:

Lewis and Simons, “EGIDS: Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale,” documented in [SIL-Ethnologue] and summarized here:
ICANN, “Guidelines for Developing Reference LGRs for the Second Level”, (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 27 May 2020),
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, (ICANN),“Reference Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Second Level: Overview and Summary” (PDF), (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 24 January 2024),
Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Telugu Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, 7 June 2019,
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022 (PDF),
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Telugu Script (und-Telu), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
ICANN, Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Telugu Script (und-Telu), 26 May 2022 (XML)
David M. Eberhard, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2021. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty fourth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version available as
[Unicode 11.0.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Telugu Script for the second level please see details in the Table of References below.

Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. References [102] and above correspond to sources given in [Proposal-Telugu] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values. In the listing of whole label evaluation and context rules, reference [150] indicates the source for common rules.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 74
Out-of-repertoire variants 34
Total entries in table 108
Number of code points
for each script
Kannada 34
Telugu 63
Common 11
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. Some code points or sequences listed in the following table are not part of the repertoire itself; they document targets for out-of-repertoire variant mappings as indicated. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Part of
Variants Comment
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0]   not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] Common-digit    
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] Common-digit    
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] Common-digit    
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] Common-digit    
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] Common-digit    
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] Common-digit    
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] Common-digit    
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] Common-digit    
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] Common-digit    
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] Common-digit    
U+0C02  ం Telugu TELUGU SIGN ANUSVARA [0], [102], [103] Anusvara follows-V-M-or-C set 1 = sunna
U+0C03  ః Telugu TELUGU SIGN VISARGA [0], [102], [103] Visarga follows-V-M-or-C set 2  
U+0C05 Telugu TELUGU LETTER A [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 3  
U+0C06 Telugu TELUGU LETTER AA [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 4  
U+0C07 Telugu TELUGU LETTER I [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 5  
U+0C08 Telugu TELUGU LETTER II [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 6  
U+0C09 Telugu TELUGU LETTER U [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0A Telugu TELUGU LETTER UU [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0B Telugu TELUGU LETTER VOCALIC R [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0E Telugu TELUGU LETTER E [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0F Telugu TELUGU LETTER EE [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C10 Telugu TELUGU LETTER AI [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 7  
U+0C12 Telugu TELUGU LETTER O [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 8  
U+0C13 Telugu TELUGU LETTER OO [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 9  
U+0C14 Telugu TELUGU LETTER AU [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 10  
U+0C15 Telugu TELUGU LETTER KA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C16 Telugu TELUGU LETTER KHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 11  
U+0C17 Telugu TELUGU LETTER GA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 12  
U+0C18 Telugu TELUGU LETTER GHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C19 Telugu TELUGU LETTER NGA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C1A Telugu TELUGU LETTER CA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C1B Telugu TELUGU LETTER CHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C1C Telugu TELUGU LETTER JA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 13  
U+0C1D Telugu TELUGU LETTER JHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 14  
U+0C1E Telugu TELUGU LETTER NYA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 15  
U+0C1F Telugu TELUGU LETTER TTA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 16  
U+0C20 Telugu TELUGU LETTER TTHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 17  
U+0C21 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DDA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 18  
U+0C22 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DDHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 19  
U+0C23 Telugu TELUGU LETTER NNA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 20  
U+0C24 Telugu TELUGU LETTER TA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C25 Telugu TELUGU LETTER THA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 21  
U+0C26 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 22  
U+0C27 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 23  
U+0C28 Telugu TELUGU LETTER NA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 24  
U+0C2A Telugu TELUGU LETTER PA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C2B Telugu TELUGU LETTER PHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C2C Telugu TELUGU LETTER BA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 25  
U+0C2D Telugu TELUGU LETTER BHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 26  
U+0C2E Telugu TELUGU LETTER MA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 27  
U+0C2F Telugu TELUGU LETTER YA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 28  
U+0C30 Telugu TELUGU LETTER RA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 29  
U+0C32 Telugu TELUGU LETTER LA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 30  
U+0C33 Telugu TELUGU LETTER LLA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 31  
U+0C35 Telugu TELUGU LETTER VA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C36 Telugu TELUGU LETTER SHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C37 Telugu TELUGU LETTER SSA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C38 Telugu TELUGU LETTER SA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C39 Telugu TELUGU LETTER HA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C3E  ా Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN AA [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C3F  ి Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN I [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C set 32  
U+0C40  ీ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN II [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C41  ు Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN U [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C set 33  
U+0C42  ూ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN UU [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C43  ృ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C set 34  
U+0C44  ౄ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C46  ె Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN E [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C47  ే Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN EE [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C48  ై Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN AI [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4A  ొ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN O [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4B  ో Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN OO [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4C  ౌ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN AU [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4D  ్ Telugu TELUGU SIGN VIRAMA [0], [102], [103] Halant follows-C   = halant
U+0C82  ಂ Kannada KANNADA SIGN ANUSVARA [0]     set 1 Not part of repertoire
U+0C83  ಃ Kannada KANNADA SIGN VISARGA [0]     set 2 Not part of repertoire
U+0C85 Kannada KANNADA LETTER A [0]     set 3 Not part of repertoire
U+0C86 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AA [0]     set 4 Not part of repertoire
U+0C87 Kannada KANNADA LETTER I [0]     set 5 Not part of repertoire
U+0C88 Kannada KANNADA LETTER II [0]     set 6 Not part of repertoire
U+0C90 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AI [0]     set 7 Not part of repertoire
U+0C92 Kannada KANNADA LETTER O [0]     set 8 Not part of repertoire
U+0C93 Kannada KANNADA LETTER OO [0]     set 9 Not part of repertoire
U+0C94 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AU [0]     set 10 Not part of repertoire
U+0C96 Kannada KANNADA LETTER KHA [0]     set 11 Not part of repertoire
U+0C97 Kannada KANNADA LETTER GA [0]     set 12 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9C Kannada KANNADA LETTER JA [0]     set 13 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9D Kannada KANNADA LETTER JHA [0]     set 14 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9E Kannada KANNADA LETTER NYA [0]     set 15 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9F Kannada KANNADA LETTER TTA [0]     set 16 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA0 Kannada KANNADA LETTER TTHA [0]     set 17 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA1 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DDA [0]     set 18 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA2 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DDHA [0]     set 19 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA3 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NNA [0]     set 20 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA5 Kannada KANNADA LETTER THA [0]     set 21 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA6 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DA [0]     set 22 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA7 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DHA [0]     set 23 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA8 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NA [0]     set 24 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAC Kannada KANNADA LETTER BA [0]     set 25 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAD Kannada KANNADA LETTER BHA [0]     set 26 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAE Kannada KANNADA LETTER MA [0]     set 27 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAF Kannada KANNADA LETTER YA [0]     set 28 Not part of repertoire
U+0CB0 Kannada KANNADA LETTER RA [0]     set 29 Not part of repertoire
U+0CB2 Kannada KANNADA LETTER LA [0]     set 30 Not part of repertoire
U+0CB3 Kannada KANNADA LETTER LLA [0]     set 31 Not part of repertoire
U+0CBF  ಿ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN I [0]     set 32 Not part of repertoire
U+0CC1  ು Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN U [0]     set 33 Not part of repertoire
U+0CC3  ೃ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0]     set 34 Not part of repertoire


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.
✔ - core repertoire
A check mark in the Part-of-repertoire column indicates a code point is part of the core repertoire.
✗ - out-of-repertoire
A code point shown with is not part of the repertoire. It is listed only because it is the target of an out-of-repertoire-var variant mapping.


Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 34
Largest variant set 2
Ordinary Variants by Type
blocked 68
Reflexive Variants by Type
out-of-repertoire-var 34

Variant Sets

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

A mapping where source and target are the same is reflexive. Variant sets consisting of only a single reflexive mapping are not shown as a set. Instead, the variant type of the mapping is listed in the Variants column of the Repertoire by Code Point table. Reflexive mappings that are part of a larger set are indicated with a “≡” and are counted once per entry.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and all variant sets are disjoint.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
- reflexive
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment are for a reflexive mapping where source equals target.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR. A reflexive variant type “out-of-repertoire-var” designates the target as not part of the repertoire; it is required as target for one or more variant mappings that cross repertoire boundaries. In this LGR, types for variants between out-of-repertoire code points are shown in italic while types for pure in-repertoire variants are shown in bold.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C02  ం 0C82  ಂ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C82  ಂ 0C82  ಂ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 2 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C03  ః 0C83  ಃ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C83  ಃ 0C83  ಃ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 3 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C05 0C85 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C85 0C85 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 4 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C06 0C86 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C86 0C86 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 5 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C07 0C87 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C87 0C87 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 6 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C08 0C88 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C88 0C88 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 7 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C10 0C90 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C90 0C90 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 8 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C12 0C92 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C92 0C92 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 9 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C13 0C93 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C93 0C93 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 10 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C14 0C94 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C94 0C94 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 11 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C16 0C96 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C96 0C96 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 12 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C17 0C97 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C97 0C97 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 13 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1C 0C9C blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9C 0C9C out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 14 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1D 0C9D blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9D 0C9D out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 15 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1E 0C9E blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9E 0C9E out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 16 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1F 0C9F blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9F 0C9F out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 17 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C20 0CA0 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA0 0CA0 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 18 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C21 0CA1 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA1 0CA1 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 19 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C22 0CA2 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA2 0CA2 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 20 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C23 0CA3 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA3 0CA3 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 21 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C25 0CA5 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA5 0CA5 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 22 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C26 0CA6 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA6 0CA6 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 23 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C27 0CA7 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA7 0CA7 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 24 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C28 0CA8 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA8 0CA8 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 25 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2C 0CAC blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAC 0CAC out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 26 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2D 0CAD blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAD 0CAD out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 27 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2E 0CAE blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAE 0CAE out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 28 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2F 0CAF blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAF 0CAF out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 29 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C30 0CB0 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CB0 0CB0 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 30 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C32 0CB2 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CB2 0CB2 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 31 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C33 0CB3 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CB3 0CB3 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 32 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C3F  ి 0CBF  ಿ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CBF  ಿ 0CBF  ಿ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 33 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C41  ు 0CC1  ು blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CC1  ು 0CC1  ು out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 34 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C43  ృ 0CC3  ೃ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CC3  ೃ 0CC3  ೃ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Number of named classes 4
Implicit (except script) 3
Implict defined by script tag 3

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
C Tag=Consonant 34 {0C15-0C28 0C2A-0C30 0C32-0C33 0C35-0C39}   Any Telugu consonant
V Tag=Vowel 13 {0C05-0C0B 0C0E-0C10 0C12-0C14}   Any Telugu independent vowel
M Tag=Matra 13 {0C3E-0C44 0C46-0C48 0C4A-0C4C}   Any Telugu vowel sign (matra)
H Tag=Halant 1 {0C4D}   The Telugu Halant / Virama
implicit Tag=Anusvara 1 {0C02}   The character tagged as Anusvara
implicit Tag=Common-digit 10 {0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common-digit
implicit Tag=Visarga 1 {0C03}   The character tagged as Visarga
implicit Tag=sc:Knda 34 {0C82-0C83 0C85-0C88 0C90 0C92-0C94 0C96-0C97 0C9C-0CA3 0CA5-0CA8 0CAC-0CB0 0CB2-0CB3 0CBF 0CC1 0CC3}   Any character tagged as Kannada
implicit Tag=sc:Telu 63 {0C02-0C03 0C05-0C0B 0C0E-0C10 0C12-0C28 0C2A-0C30 0C32-0C33 0C35-0C39 0C3E-0C44 0C46-0C48 0C4A-0C4D}   Any character tagged as Telugu
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 {002D 0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 5
Used to trigger actions 1
Used as context rule (C) 4
Anchored context rules 4

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[[\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [\p{gc=Mc}]]     [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks ⍟
hyphen-minus-disallowed (((start))← ⚓︎)|(⚓︎ →((end)))|(((start)..\u002D)← ⚓︎)   C [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D -
follows-C ([:C:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 1: H must be preceded by a C; WLE 2: M must be preceded by C
follows-V-M-or-C ([:V:]|[:M:]|[:C:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 3: Visarga must be preceded by V, M or C; WLE 4: Anusvara must be preceded by V, M or C
follows-H ([:H:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 6: V cannot be preceded by H


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
( ) - group
An anonymous nested rule is used to group match operators.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
. - any code point
. matches any code point.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid [150] labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
5 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following variant types are used in one or more actions, but are not defined in this LGR: allocatable. This is not necessarily an error.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the References section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[102] Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (Ed.). 2000. Telugu bhaashaa charitra. Hyderabad: P.S. Telugu University. (first edition 1974)
[103] Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju and J P L Gwynn. 1985. A Grammar of Modern Telugu. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-561664-4
[150] RFC 5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol