Reference LGR for script: Gurmukhi (Guru) lgr-second-level-gurmukhi-script-24jan24-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2024-01-24
LGR Version 2 (Second Level Reference LGR)
Language und-Guru (Gurmukhi Script)
Unicode Version 11.0.0



  • These instructions cover how to adopt an LGR based on this reference LGR for a given zone and how to prepare the file for deposit in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices.
  • As described the IANA procedure
    an LGR MUST contain the following elements in its header:
    • Script or Language Designator (see below for guidance)
    • Version Number (this must increase with each amendment to the LGR, even if the updates are limited to the header itself)
    • Effective Date (the date at which the policy becomes applicable in operational use)
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    • Document creation date
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    • Changes made to the Reference LGR before adopting

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Meta Data

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Change History

If you made technical modifications to the LGR, please summarize them in the Change History (and also note the details in the appropriate section of the description).


Registry Contact Details

Label Generation Rules for the Gurmukhi Script


This document specifies a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Gurmukhi script for the second level domain or domains identified above. The starting point for the development of this LGR can be found in the related Root Zone LGR [RZ-LGR-Guru]. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940]. This LGR is adapted from the “Reference LGR for the Second Level for the Gurmukhi Script” [Ref-LGR-und-Guru], for details, see Change History below.

For details and additional background on the Gurmukhi script, see “Proposal for a Gurmukhi Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)" [Proposal-Gurmukhi].


The repertoire contains 56 codepoints for letters used by the Punjabi language written using the Gurmukhi script. Punjabi ([EGIDS] level 2) is the only language currently using the Gurmukhi script. The repertoire is a subset of [Unicode 11.0.0]. For details, see Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi]. (The proposal cited has been adopted for the Gurmukhi script portion of the Root Zone LGR.)

For the second level, the repertoire has been augmented with the ASCII digits, U+0030 0 to U+0039 9, plus U+002D - HYPHEN-MINUS, for a total of 67 repertoire elements.

Any code points outside the Gurmukhi Script repertoire that are targets for out-of-repertoire variants would be included here only if the variant is listed in this file. In this case they are identified as a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. Whether or not they are listed, they do not form part of the repertoire.

Repertoire Listing: Each code point or range is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, one or more tag values denoting character category, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire, see “References” below. Comments provide alternate names for some code points.


The variants defined in this LGR are limited to those required for use in zones not shared with any other script. As such, this LGR does not define cross-script variants. However, using this LGR concurrently with any LGR for Bengali and Devanagari in the same zone will create potential cross-script issues. For details, see Section 6, “Variants” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi]. Mitigation of these cross-script variants can be addressed by using the Common LGR. For details, see Section 3, “Use of Multiple Reference LGRs in the Same Zone” in [Level-2-Overview]. In addition to variants defined by this LGR, the full variant information related to this script and required for concurrent use with the Bengali and Devanagari LGR(s) can be found in the following LGR: [Ref-LGR-Devanagari-Full-Variant-Script]

There are no in-script variants defined for Gurmukhi. See Section 6, “Variants” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Digit Variants: The Gurmukhi reference LGR does not include native digits, so there are no semantic variants defined.

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent labels should be blocked. There is no preference among these labels.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in this LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

Gurmukhi is an alphasyllabary and the heart of the writing system is the akshar. This is the unit which is instinctively recognized by users of the script. The elements of the writing system consist of Consonants, Implicit Vowel Killer: Halant, Vowels, Bindi, Tippi, Addak, Nukta and Visarga.

Consonants: Gurmukhi consonants contain an implicit vowel schwa /ə/. They are also used without any modification to represent consonant sounds without an implicit /ə/ vowel More details in Section 3.3.1, “The Consonants” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Virama: Unlike the Halant in other Neo-Brahmi scripts, U+094D  ्  GURMUKHI SIGN VIRAMA is not used in general to strip a consonant letter’s implicit vowel. The Virama is only used to create a conjunct where the letter U+0A39 HA, U+0A30 RA or U+0A35 VA is the second element in a conjunct. More details in Section 3.3.2, “The Implicit Vowel Killer: Virama” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Vowels and Matras: Punjabi has seven long vowels and three short vowels (ਅ /ə/, ਇ /I/, and ਉ /U/) . Each of them, except U+0A05 have a corresponding vowel sign, or matra, which is used to modify the vowel inherent in the preceding consonant. More details in Section 3.3.3, “Vowels” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Bindi: Bindi represents a homo-organic nasal. Bindi is used with all long vowels and the short vowel U+0A09 , as well as with the matras of long vowels, except the matra U+0A42  ੂ . More details in Section, “The Bindi” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Tippi: Tippi is used to nasalize short vowels /ə/ and /I/ at all places, as well as /U/ and /u/ after a consonant. Therefore, Tippi comes after consonants without a vowel sign (representing the matra of /ə/ “mukta”) and after the matra of /I/ ( ਿ ) following vowel carriers and consonants, such as in ਸੰ and ਸਿੰ. The matras of /U/ ( ੁ,) and /u/ ( ੂ ) following a consonant also take a Tippi. In addition, Tippi is used in gemination for nasal consonants ਙ, ਞ, ਨ and ਮ. More details in Section, “The Tippi” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Addak: Addak is used to mark the gemination of the following consonant. In Punjabi, addak usually can follow mukta, aunkar ( ੁ ) and sihari ( ਿ ), and the vowel signs of the short vowels /ə/, /u/ and /i/. It geminates the consonant that follows it; therefore it cannot occur at the end of a label. More details in Section “The Addak” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Nukta: Called pairin bindi in Punjabi, Nukta is used with the six consonants (ਸ, ਖ, ਗ, ਜ, ਫ and ਲ ) defined as set C1 to represent the phonemes of words of Sanskrit and Perso-Arabic sources. More details in Section, “Nukta” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Common Rules

By default, the LGR includes the rules and actions to implement the following restrictions mandated by the IDNA protocol. They are marked with ⍟.

  • Hyphen Restrictions — restrictions on the allowable placement of hyphens (no leading/ending hyphen and no hyphen in positions 3 and 4). These restrictions are described in Section of RFC 5891 [150]. They are implemented here as context rule on U+002D (-) HYPHEN-MINUS.
  • Leading Combining Marks — restrictions on the allowable placement of combining marks (no leading combining mark). This rule is described in Section of RFC 5891 [150].

Default Actions

This LGR includes the default actions for LGRs as well as the action needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks. They are marked with ⍟. For a description see [RFC 7940].

Gurmukhi-specific Rules

These rules have been drafted to ensure that the prospective Gurmukhi label conforms to akshar formation norms as desired in Gurmukhi script. These norms are exclusively presented as context rules.

The following symbols are used in the WLE rules:
C → Consonant
M → Matra
V → Vowel
B → Bindi
D → Tippi
A → Addak
H → Virama / Halant
N → Nukta
M1 → { ਿ(U+0A3F), ੁ (U+0A41) } (Short matras)
M2 → M - M1 (Long matras)
V1 → { ਅ (U+0A05), ਇ (U+0A07), ਉ (U+0A09)} (Short Vowels)
V2 → V - V1 (Long Vowel)
C1 → {ਖ (U+0A16), ਗ (U+0A17), ਜ (U+0A1C), ਫ (U+0A2B), ਲ (U+0A32), ਸ (U+0A38)}
C2 → { ਰ (U+0A30), ਵ (U+0A35), ਹ (U+0A39)}
C3 → C – {ਙ (U+0A19), ਞ (U+0A1E), ਣ (U+0A23), ਹ (U+0A39), ੜ (U+0A5C)}

The rules are:

  • 7.1 N: must be preceded by C1
  • 7.2 H: must be preceded by C or N and followed by C2
  • 7.3 M: must be preceded by C or N
  • 7.4 B: must be preceded by specific V or M
  • 7.5 D: must be preceded by C, N or specific V or M
  • 7.6 A: must be preceded by C, N or specific V or M and followed by C3

More details in Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation Rules (WLE)” in [Proposal-Gurmukhi].

Methodology and Contributors

The LGR in this document has been adapted from the corresponding Reference LGR for the Second Level. The Second Level Reference LGR for the Gurmukhi Script was developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, based on the Root Zone LGR for the Gurmukhi script and information contained or referenced therein; see [RZ-LGR-Guru]. Suitable extensions for the second level have been applied according to the [Guidelines] and with community input. The original proposal for a Root Zone LGR for the Gurmukhi script, that this reference LGR is based on, was developed by the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel (NBGP). For more information on methodology and contributors to the underlying Root Zone LGR, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Gurmukhi], as well as [RZ-LGR-Overview].

Changes from Version Dated 15 December 2020

Unicode Version has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 24 January 2024

Adopted from the Second Level Reference LGR for the Gurmukhi Script [Ref-LGR-und-Guru] without normative changes.


The following general references are cited in this document:

Lewis and Simons, “EGIDS: Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale,” documented in [SIL-Ethnologue] and summarized here:
ICANN, “Guidelines for Developing Reference LGRs for the Second Level”, (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 27 May 2020),
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, (ICANN),“Reference Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Second Level: Overview and Summary” (PDF), (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 24 January 2024),
Gurmukhi Unicode chart (Accessed on 21 May 2018)
Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Gurmukhi Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, 22 April 2019,
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Gurmukhi Script (und-Guru), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Devanagari Script (und-Deva), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022 (PDF),
ICANN, Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Gurmukhi Script (und-Guru), 26 May 2022 (XML)
David M. Eberhard, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2021. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty fourth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version available as
[Unicode 11.0.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Gurmukhi Script for the second level please see details in the Table of References below.

Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. References [105] and above correspond to sources given in [Proposal-Gurmukhi] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values. In the listing of whole label evaluation and context rules, reference [150] indicates the source for common rules.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 67
Number of code points
for each script
Gurmukhi 56
Common 11
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Variants Comment
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0]   not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] Common-digit    
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] Common-digit    
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] Common-digit    
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] Common-digit    
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] Common-digit    
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] Common-digit    
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] Common-digit    
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] Common-digit    
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] Common-digit    
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] Common-digit    
U+0A02  ਂ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI SIGN BINDI [0], [105], [112] Bindi follows-specific-V-or-M   Punjabi
U+0A05 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER A [0], [105], [112] V1, Vowel     = aira; Punjabi
U+0A06 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER AA [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A07 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER I [0], [105], [112] V1, Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A08 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER II [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A09 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER U [0], [105], [112] V1, Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A0A Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER UU [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A0F Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER EE [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A10 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER AI [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A13 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER OO [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A14 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER AU [0], [105], [112] Vowel     Punjabi
U+0A15 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER KA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A16 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER KHA [0], [105], [112] C1, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A17 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER GA [0], [105], [112] C1, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A18 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER GHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A19 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER NGA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A1A Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER CA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A1B Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER CHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A1C Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER JA [0], [105], [112] C1, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A1D Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER JHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A1E Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER NYA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A1F Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER TTA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A20 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER TTHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A21 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER DDA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A22 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER DDHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A23 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER NNA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A24 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER TA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A25 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER THA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A26 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER DA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A27 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER DHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A28 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER NA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A2A Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER PA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A2B Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER PHA [0], [105], [112] C1, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A2C Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER BA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A2D Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER BHA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A2E Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER MA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A2F Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER YA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A30 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER RA [0], [105], [112] C2, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A32 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER LA [0], [105], [112] C1, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A35 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER VA [0], [105], [112] C2, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A38 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER SA [0], [105], [112] C1, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A39 Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER HA [0], [105], [112] C2, Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A3C  ਼ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA [0], [105], [112] Nukta follows-C1   = pairin bindi; Punjabi
U+0A3E  ਾ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AA [0], [105], [110], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N   = kanna; Punjabi
U+0A3F  ਿ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN I [0], [105], [112] M1, Matra follows-C-or-N   = sihari; Punjabi
U+0A40  ੀ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN II [0], [105], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N   = bihari; Punjabi
U+0A41  ੁ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN U [0], [105], [112] M1, Matra follows-C-or-N   = aunkar; Punjabi
U+0A42  ੂ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN UU [0], [105], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N   = dulainkar; Punjabi
U+0A47  ੇ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN EE [0], [105], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N set 1 = lanvan; Punjabi
U+0A48  ੈ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AI [0], [105], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N   = dulavan; Punjabi
U+0A4B  ੋ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN OO [0], [105], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N set 1 = hora; Punjabi
U+0A4C  ੌ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AU [0], [105], [112] Matra follows-C-or-N   = kanaura; Punjabi
U+0A4D  ੍ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI SIGN VIRAMA [0], [105], [112] Virama follows-C-or-N-and-precedes-C2   Punjabi
U+0A5C Gurmukhi GURMUKHI LETTER RRA [0], [105], [112] Consonant     Punjabi
U+0A70  ੰ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI TIPPI [0], [105], [112] Tippi follows-C-N-or-specific-V-or-M   Punjabi
U+0A71  ੱ Gurmukhi GURMUKHI ADDAK [0], [105], [112] Addak follows-C-N-or-specific-V-or-M-and-precedes-C3   Punjabi


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.


Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 1
Largest variant set 2
Variants by Type
blocked 2

Variant Sets

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and all variant sets are disjoint.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0A47  ੇ 0A4B  ੋ blocked   Gurmukhi variant

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Number of named classes 11
Implicit (except script) 5
Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
C Tag=Consonant 32 {0A15-0A28 0A2A-0A30 0A32 0A35 0A38-0A39 0A5C}   Any Gurmukhi consonant
V Tag=Vowel 10 {0A05-0A0A 0A0F-0A10 0A13-0A14}   Any Gurmukhi independent vowel
M Tag=Matra 9 {0A3E-0A42 0A47-0A48 0A4B-0A4C}   Any Gurmukhi vowel sign (matra)
N Tag=Nukta 1 {0A3C}   The Gurmukhi Nukta
V1 Tag=V1 3 {0A05 0A07 0A09}   Specific vowels that are used with Gurmukhi Addak
V2 combined =
[[:V:] ∖ [:V1:]]
7 {0A06 0A08 0A0A 0A0F-0A10 0A13-0A14}   Specific vowels that are used with Gurmukhi Bindi
M1 Tag=M1 2 {0A3F 0A41}   Gurmukhi short matras
M2 combined =
[[:M:] ∖ [:M1:]]
7 {0A3E 0A40 0A42 0A47-0A48 0A4B-0A4C}   Gurmukhi long matras
C1 Tag=C1 6 {0A16-0A17 0A1C 0A2B 0A32 0A38}   Specific consonants preceding Gurmukhi Nukta
C2 Tag=C2 3 {0A30 0A35 0A39}   Specific consonants following Gurmukhi Halant
C3 combined =
[[:C:] ∖ [0A19 0A1E 0A23 0A39 0A5C]]
27 {0A15-0A18 0A1A-0A1D 0A1F-0A22 0A24-0A28 0A2A-0A30 0A32 0A35 0A38}   Specific consonants following Gurmukhi Addak
implicit Tag=Addak 1 {0A71}   The character tagged as Addak
implicit Tag=Bindi 1 {0A02}   The character tagged as Bindi
implicit Tag=Common-digit 10 {0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common-digit
implicit Tag=Tippi 1 {0A70}   The character tagged as Tippi
implicit Tag=Virama 1 {0A4D}   The character tagged as Virama
implicit Tag=sc:Guru 56 {0A02 0A05-0A0A 0A0F-0A10 0A13-0A28 0A2A-0A30 0A32 0A35 0A38-0A39 0A3C 0A3E-0A42 0A47-0A48 0A4B-0A4D 0A5C 0A70-0A71}   Any character tagged as Gurmukhi
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 {002D 0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.
A named class defined by set operations on other classes using the following syntax:
[ ] - explicit character set
For explicit character sets that are part of a rule, only those members are shown that are defined in this LGR.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 8
Used to trigger actions 1
Used as context rule (C) 7
Anchored context rules 7

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[[\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [\p{gc=Mc}]]     [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks ⍟
hyphen-minus-disallowed (((start))← ⚓︎)|(⚓︎ →((end)))|(((start)..\u002D)← ⚓︎)   C [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D -
follows-C1 ([:C1:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7.1. N: must be preceded by C1
follows-C-or-N-and-precedes-C2 ([:C:]|[:N:])← ⚓︎ →([:C2:])   C   Section 7.2. H: must be preceded by C or N and followed by C2
follows-C-or-N ([:C:]|[:N:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7.3. M: must be preceded by C or N
follows-specific-V-or-M ([:V2:]|\u0A09|([[:M2:] ∖ [\u0A42]]))← ⚓︎   C   Section 7.4. Bindi must be preceded by specific V or M
follows-C-N-or-specific-V-or-M ([:C:]|[:N:]|([[:V1:] ∖ [\u0A09]])|[:M1:]|\u0A42)← ⚓︎   C   Section 7.5. Tippi must be preceded by C, N or specific V or M
follows-C-N-or-specific-V-or-M-and-precedes-C3 ([:C:]|[:N:]|[:V1:]|\u0A10|[:M1:]|\u0A48)← ⚓︎ →([:C3:])   C   Section 7.6. Addak must be preceded by C, N or specific V or M and followed by C3


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
( ) - group
An anonymous nested rule is used to group match operators.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
. - any code point
. matches any code point.
[ ] - explicit character set
For explicit character sets that are part of a rule, only those members are shown that are defined in this LGR.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid [150] labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
5 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following variant types are used in one or more actions, but are not defined in this LGR: allocatable, out-of-repertoire-var. This is not necessarily an error.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the References section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[105] Omniglot,
(Accessed on 10 Nov. 2017)
[110] Gurmukhi Alphabet :: Lesson 11, “Gurmukhi Vowel Signs Group-1 Mukta and Kanna”,
(Accessed on 10 Nov. 2017)
[112] A reference Grammar of Punjabi,
(Accessed on 10 Nov. 2017)
[150] RFC 5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol