Reference LGR for language: Macedonian (mk) lgr-second-level-macedonian-language-24jan24-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2024-01-24
LGR Version 3 (Second Level Reference LGR)
Language mk (Macedonian Language)
Unicode Version 11.0.0



  • These instructions cover how to adopt an LGR based on this reference LGR for a given zone and how to prepare the file for deposit in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices.
  • As described the IANA procedure
    an LGR MUST contain the following elements in its header:
    • Script or Language Designator (see below for guidance)
    • Version Number (this must increase with each amendment to the LGR, even if the updates are limited to the header itself)
    • Effective Date (the date at which the policy becomes applicable in operational use)
    • Registry Contact Details (contact name, email address, and/or phone number)
  • The following information is optional:
    • Document creation date
    • Applicable Domain(s)
    • Changes made to the Reference LGR before adopting

Please add or modify the following items in the XML source code for this file before depositing the document in the IANA Repository.

Meta Data

Note: version numbers start at 1. RFC 7940 recommends using simple integers. The version comment is optional, please replace or delete the default comment. Version comments may be used by some tools as part of the page header.

<version comment="[Please replace (or delete) the optional comment]">[Please fill in version number, starting at 1]</version>

<date>[Please fill in with publication date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</date>

<validity-start>[Please fill in effective date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</validity-start>

Note: the scope element may be repeated, so that the same document can serve for multiple domains.

<scope type="domain">[Please provide, in ".domain" format]</scope>

Registry Contact Information:

Please fill in the Registry Contact Details.

Change History

If you made technical modifications to the LGR, please summarize them in the Change History (and also note the details in the appropriate section of the description).


Registry Contact Details

Label Generation Rules for Macedonian


This document specifies a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Macedonian language using a language-specific repertoire for the second level domain or domains identified above. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940]. This LGR is adapted from the “Reference LGR for the Second Level for the Macedonian Language” [Ref-LGR-mk-Cyrl], for details, see Change History below.

Standalone LGR: This LGR is designed to be used in a zone that does not cater to IDNs other than those valid under this LGR. This LGR lacks features that would allow its use in the context of another LGR in the same zone, and it may contain other features incompatible with such use.


Most references converge on 31 Cyrillic code points. There are however some discrepancies:

  • Two sources (IIS) and RFC 5992 [130]) leave out U+0453 ѓ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GJE, which is clearly Macedonian, while including the similar looking U+0491 ґ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN which is Ukrainian. This is an obvious error.

  • The same sources include U+0452 ђ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DJE mostly used in Serbian which is not included by any other sources.

Based on this, the repertoire includes U+0453 ѓ, but excludes U+0452 ђ and U+0491 ґ.

Because U+0450 ѐ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE WITH GRAVE and U+045D ѝ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I WITH GRAVE were encoded later than most of the other European Cyrillic code points they are not as widely implemented and referenced but are nevertheless considered essential for Macedonian. Document [110] used for the encoding proposal in 1996 provides the evidence. There is an additional reference [605] which discusses the use of the grave accent as either a stress mark or a distinct orthographical mark.

There is a TLD for Macedonia called .мкд administered by Macedonian Academic and Research Network (MARnet), see
(in Macedonian). As of 24 January 2024, no repertoire guidance could be found for this domain, therefore this is not used as a reference for this LGR.

Excluded code points

Letters documented in some references but not included:



Extended code points


Any code points outside the Macedonian Language repertoire that are targets for out-of-repertoire variants would be included here only if the variant is listed in this file. In this case they are identified as a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. Whether or not they are listed, they do not form part of the repertoire.


There are no variants defined between Cyrillic letters. While U+0453 ѓ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GJE and U+0491 ґ CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN have been mentioned by different references and could be perceived as variants of each other, the reference of CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN appears to be in error and therefore does not justify the creation of a variant pair with CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GJE.

No ASCII Variants: This LGR does not contain definitions for “blocked” variants for letters that look indistinguishable from ASCII letters (homoglyphs). If concurrent use of LDH labels is desired, the resulting conflicts can be handled by using the “Common LGR” in processing. For details, see Section 3, “Use of Multiple Reference LGRs in the Same Zone” in [Level-2-Overview].

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent labels should be blocked. There is no preference among these labels.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in this LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

This LGR does not define named character classes.


Common Rules

By default, the LGR includes the rules and actions to implement the following restrictions mandated by the IDNA protocol. They are marked with ⍟.

  • Hyphen Restrictions — restrictions on the allowable placement of hyphens (no leading/ending hyphen and no hyphen in positions 3 and 4). These restrictions are described in Section of RFC 5891 [150]. They are implemented here as context rule on U+002D (-) HYPHEN-MINUS.
  • Leading Combining Marks — restrictions on the allowable placement of combining marks (no leading combining mark). This rule is described in Section of RFC 5891 [150].


This LGR includes the default actions for LGRs as well as the action needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks. They are marked with ⍟. For a description see [RFC 7940].

Variant-related actions included to facilitate integration as appropriate.

Methodology and Contributors

The LGR in this document has been adapted from the corresponding Reference LGR for the Second Level. The Second Level Reference LGR for the Macedonian Language was developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, including input by Michael Everson, Nicholas Ostler, and Wil Tan, and based on multiple open public consultations.

Changes from Version Dated 10 October 2016

Language tag has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 18 May 2021

Unicode Version has been updated.

Blocked variants have been added for homoglyphs of ASCII letters. These have no effect unless the LGR is used together with LDH labels in the same zone.

Changes from Version Dated 24 January 2024

Adopted from the Second Level Reference LGR for the Macedonian Language [Ref-LGR-mk-Cyrl] without normative changes.


General reference for the language:

  • Friedman, Victor A. 1993. “Macedonian”, in Bernard Comrie & Greville G. Corbett, eds. The Slavonic languages. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04755-2

Other references cited in this document:

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, (ICANN),“Reference Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Second Level: Overview and Summary” (PDF), (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 24 January 2024),
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Macedonian Language (mk-Cyrl), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
[Unicode 11.0.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

In the listing of the repertoire by code point, references starting from [0] refer to the version of the Unicode Standard in which the corresponding code point was initially encoded. Other references (starting from [100]) document usage of code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values. In the listing of whole label evaluation and context rules, reference [150] indicates the source for common rules. For more details, see the Table of References below.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 44
Number of code points
for each script
Cyrillic 33
Common 11
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Required Context Comment
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0] not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0]    
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0]    
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0]    
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0]    
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0]    
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0]    
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0]    
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0]    
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0]    
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0]    
U+0430 а Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0431 б Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0432 в Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0433 г Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0434 д Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0435 е Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0436 ж Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0437 з Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0438 и Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+043A к Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+043B л Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+043C м Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+043D н Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+043E о Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+043F п Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0440 р Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0441 с Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0442 т Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0443 у Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0444 ф Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0445 х Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0446 ц Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0447 ч Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0448 ш Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0450 ѐ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE WITH GRAVE [3], [110], [301], [402], [605]    
U+0453 ѓ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GJE [0], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0455 ѕ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DZE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0458 ј Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER JE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+0459 љ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER LJE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+045A њ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER NJE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+045C ќ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KJE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    
U+045D ѝ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I WITH GRAVE [3], [110], [301], [402], [605]    
U+045F џ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DZHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401]    


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.


This LGR does not specify any variants.

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
implicit Tag=sc:Cyrl 33 {0430-0438 043A-0448 0450 0453 0455 0458-045A 045C-045D 045F}   Any character tagged as Cyrillic
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 {002D 0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 3
Used to trigger actions 1
Used as context rule (C) 1
Anchored context rules 1
Used only in another rule 1

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[∅=[[∅=\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [∅=\p{gc=Mc}]]]     [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks ⍟
hyphen-minus-disallowed (((start))← ⚓︎)|(⚓︎ →((end)))|(((start)..\u002D)← ⚓︎)   C [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D -
extended-cp (start)(end)         context to gate off code points from the extended range, matches no label ⍟


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
( ) - group
An anonymous nested rule is used to group match operators.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
. - any code point
. matches any code point.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
∅= - empty set
Indicates that the following set is empty because of the result of set operations, or because none of its elements is part of the repertoire defined here. A rule with a non-optional empty set never matches.
(^$) - empty label
The regex (^$) matches the empty label. Used as a context rule, it always fails to match, thus disallowing the affected code point in any label. By convention, it is used for context rules that disable code points that are not part of the repertoire, yet explicitly listed in the LGR as excluded or for optional future extension.
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following rules are defined but not used in this LGR: extended-cp.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid   by default, labels with leading combining marks are invalid
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action)


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following variant types are used in one or more actions, but are not defined in this LGR: blocked, out-of-repertoire-var. This is not necessarily an error.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the References section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1
Any code point cited was originally encoded in Unicode Version 1.1
[3] The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0
Any code point cited was originally encoded in Unicode Version 3.0
[100] Internetstiftelsen i Sverige (IIS), Macedonian
accessed on 2016-10-16
[110] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N1323 Proposal and summary for additions of Cyrillic character, Rado Kardalev, Ministry for Science and Technology, Macedonia
Code points cited are considered essential to Macedonian
[150] RFC 5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol
[130] RFC 5992, Internationalized Domain Names Registration and Administration Guidelines for European Languages Using Cyrillic - section 2.5 Macedonian
[201] Omniglot Macedonian
[301] Everson, Michael, The Alphabets of Europe, Macedonian
Code points cited form the standard set
[401] The Unicode Consortium, Common Locale Data Repository - CLDR Version 28 (2015-09-16) - Locale Data Summary for Macedonian [mk]-
Code points cited are from the set of Main Letters
[402] The Unicode Consortium, Common Locale Data Repository - CLDR Version 28 (2015-09-16) - Locale Data Summary for Macedonian [mk]-
Code points cited are from the set of Auxiliary Letters
[605] Wikipedia
accessed 2015-11-11
Article providing evidence for the use of the grave accent in Bulgarian and Macedonian