Reference LGR for script: Kannada (Knda) lgr-second-level-kannada-script-24jan24-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2024-01-24
LGR Version 2 (Second Level Reference LGR)
Language und-Knda (Kannada Script)
Unicode Version 11.0.0



  • These instructions cover how to adopt an LGR based on this reference LGR for a given zone and how to prepare the file for deposit in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices.
  • As described the IANA procedure
    an LGR MUST contain the following elements in its header:
    • Script or Language Designator (see below for guidance)
    • Version Number (this must increase with each amendment to the LGR, even if the updates are limited to the header itself)
    • Effective Date (the date at which the policy becomes applicable in operational use)
    • Registry Contact Details (contact name, email address, and/or phone number)
  • The following information is optional:
    • Document creation date
    • Applicable Domain(s)
    • Changes made to the Reference LGR before adopting

Please add or modify the following items in the XML source code for this file before depositing the document in the IANA Repository.

Meta Data

Note: version numbers start at 1. RFC 7940 recommends using simple integers. The version comment is optional, please replace or delete the default comment. Version comments may be used by some tools as part of the page header.

<version comment="[Please replace (or delete) the optional comment]">[Please fill in version number, starting at 1]</version>

<date>[Please fill in with publication date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</date>

<validity-start>[Please fill in effective date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</validity-start>

Note: the scope element may be repeated, so that the same document can serve for multiple domains.

<scope type="domain">[Please provide, in ".domain" format]</scope>

Registry Contact Information:

Please fill in the Registry Contact Details.

Change History

If you made technical modifications to the LGR, please summarize them in the Change History (and also note the details in the appropriate section of the description).


Registry Contact Details

Label Generation Rules for the Kannada Script


This document specifies a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Kannada script for the second level domain or domains identified above. The starting point for the development of this LGR can be found in the related Root Zone LGR [RZ-LGR-Knda]. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940]. This LGR is adapted from the “Reference LGR for the Second Level for the Kannada Script” [Ref-LGR-und-Knda], for details, see Change History below.

For details and additional background on the Kannada script, see “Proposal for a Kannada Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)" [Proposal-Kannada].


The repertoire contains 62 code points for letters covering Kannada, Tulu, Beary, Konkani, Havyaka, Kodava, among other languages written using the Kannada script. The repertoire is a subset of [Unicode 11.0.0]. For details, see Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Kannada]. (The proposal cited has been adopted for the Kannada script portion of the Root Zone LGR.)

For the second level, the repertoire has been augmented with the HYPHEN-MINUS, and two sets of decimal digits:

  • European (common) digits
  • Kannada digits

for a total of 83 repertoire elements.

Any code points outside the Kannada Script repertoire that are targets for out-of-repertoire variants would be included here only if the variant is listed in this file. In this case they are identified as a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. Whether or not they are listed, they do not form part of the repertoire.

Repertoire Listing: Each code point or range is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, one or more tag values denoting character category, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire, see “References” below. Comments provide alternate names for some code points.


The variants defined in this LGR are limited to those required for use in zones not shared with any other script. As such, this LGR does not define cross-script variants. However, using this LGR concurrently with any LGR for Telugu in the same zone will create potential cross-script issues. For details, see Section 6, “Variants” in [Proposal-Kannada]. Mitigation of these cross-script variants can be addressed by using the Common LGR. For details, see Section 3, “Use of Multiple Reference LGRs in the Same Zone” in [Level-2-Overview]. In addition to variants defined by this LGR, the full variant information related to this script and required for concurrent use with the Telugu LGR(s) can be found in the following LGR: [Ref-LGR-Telugu-Full-Variant-Script]

There are no in-script variants defined for Kannada.

Digit Variants: All Kannada digits are treated as semantic variants of the corresponding common (ASCII) digits. By transitivity, they are also semantic variants of any native digits in scripts that also include the common digits. Such variant relations are deemed to exist implicitly by transitivity but are not listed explicitly in each reference LGR. Instead, if needed, they are applied by using the Common LGR in label processing.

There is a homoglyph relation between most Telugu and Kannada digits, but as the Telugu LGR does not support native digits, this does not give rise to variants.

In particular, Kannada digit ZERO is a cross-script homoglyph or near homoglyph of digit ZERO in many other scripts; these are already implicit semantic variants by transitivity and therefore not listed here.

To keep digit variant sets manageable in zones where multiple scripts are present, no attempt has been made at identifying cross-script variants among digits of different numeric value or between a digit in one script and a letter in another, such as between digit zero and Latin letter ‘o’. Other mechanisms may be required to prevent homograph labels.

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent labels should be blocked. There is no preference among these labels.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in this LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

The structure of the Kannada script is similar to that of other Indian scripts; it is particularly closely related to Telugu. The heart of the writing system is the akshar. The basic characters are classified into three main categories: swara (vowels), vyanjana (consonants) and yogavahas (semiconsonants).

Swaras (vowels): There are thirteen vowels. When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter. Sometimes these are referred to as vowel signs or matras. More details in Section 3.4.1, “Swaras (vowels)” in [Proposal-Kannada].

Yogavahas (semiconsonants): The Yogavaha (part-vowel, part consonant) include two letters:

  1. The anusvara: ಅಂ /aṁ/.
  2. The visarga: ಅಃ /aḥ/.

See Section 3.4.2, “Yogavahas” in [Proposal-Kannada].

Vyanjanas (consonants): Two categories of consonant characters are defined in Kannada: the structured consonants (vargeeya vyanjana) and the unstructured consonants (avargeeya vyanjana). For the purpose of this LGR, all consonants are treated the same. More details in Section 3.4.3, “Vyanjanas (consonants)” of the [Proposal-Kannada].

Halant / Virama: All consonant code points in Kannada contain an implicit vowel ಅ /a/. The Unicode character U+0CCD  ್ , which is the Kannada equivalent of the Devanagari Halant (or Virama), U+094D  ् , is applied to consonants to remove the implicit vowel. More details in Section 3.4.4, “Implicit vowel ಅ (a) in consonants” in [Proposal-Kannada].

Kannada Digits: U+0CE6 to U+0CEF are a set of Kannada-specific digits. They are used in alternation with the European (common) digits.

Common Digits: U+0030 0 to U+0039 9 are the set of digits from the ASCII range.

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Common Rules

The LGR includes the rules and actions to implement the following restrictions, some of which are mandated by the IDNA protocol. They are marked with ⍟ and included here by default.

  • Hyphen Restrictions — restrictions on the allowable placement of hyphens (no leading/ending hyphen and no hyphen in positions 3 and 4). These restrictions are described in Section of RFC 5891 [150]. They are implemented here as context rule on U+002D (-) HYPHEN-MINUS.
  • Leading Combining Marks — restrictions on the allowable placement of combining marks (no leading combining mark). This rule is described in Section of RFC 5891 [150].
  • Digit-mixing — no mixing between different digit sets (European and Kannada digits) is allowed; implemented here as a WLE rule with associated action.

Default Actions

This LGR includes the complete set default actions for LGRs as well as the action needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks. They are marked with ⍟. For a description see [RFC 7940] and [150]. An additional action is triggered by mixed digit labels.

Kannada-specific Rules

These rules have been formulated so that they can be adopted for LGR specification.

The following symbols are used in the WLE rules:
C → Consonant
M → Matra
V → Vowel
B → Anusvara
X → Visarga
H → Halant / Virama

The rules are:

  • 1. H: must be preceded by C
  • 2. M: must be preceded by C
  • 3. B: must be preceded by C, V or M
  • 4. X: must be preceded by C, V or M
  • 5. V: cannot be preceded by H

More details in Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation Rules (WLE)” of [Proposal-Kannada].

Methodology and Contributors

The LGR in this document has been adapted from the corresponding Reference LGR for the Second Level. The Second Level Reference LGR for the Kannada Script was developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, based on the Root Zone LGR for the Kannada script and information contained or referenced therein; see [RZ-LGR-Knda]. Suitable extensions for the second level have been applied according to the [Guidelines] and with community input. The original proposal for a Root Zone LGR for the Kannada script, that this reference LGR is based on, was developed by the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel (NBGP). For more information on methodology and contributors to the underlying Root Zone LGR, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Kannada], as well as [RZ-LGR-Overview].

Changes from Version Dated 15 December 2020

Unicode Version has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 24 January 2024

Adopted from the Second Level Reference LGR for the Kannada Script [Ref-LGR-und-Knda] without normative changes.


The following general references are cited in this document:

ICANN, “Guidelines for Developing Reference LGRs for the Second Level”, (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 27 May 2020),
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, (ICANN),“Reference Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Second Level: Overview and Summary” (PDF), (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 24 January 2024),
Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Kannada Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, 6 March 2019,
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Kannada Script (und-Knda), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Telugu Script (und-Telu), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022 (PDF),
ICANN, Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Kannada Script (und-Knda), 26 May 2022 (XML)
[Unicode 11.0.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Kannada Script for the second level please see details in the Table of References below.

Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. References [110] and above correspond to sources given in [Proposal-Kannada] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values. In the listing of whole label evaluation and context rules, reference [150] indicates the source for common rules.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 83
Number of code points
for each script
Kannada 72
Common 11
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Variants Comment
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0]   not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] Common-digit   set 1
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] Common-digit   set 2
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] Common-digit   set 3
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] Common-digit   set 4
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] Common-digit   set 5
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] Common-digit   set 6
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] Common-digit   set 7
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] Common-digit   set 8
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] Common-digit   set 9
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] Common-digit   set 10
U+0C82  ಂ Kannada KANNADA SIGN ANUSVARA [0], [110], [111] Anusvara follows-C-V-or-M    
U+0C83  ಃ Kannada KANNADA SIGN VISARGA [0], [110], [111] Visarga follows-C-V-or-M    
U+0C85 Kannada KANNADA LETTER A [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C86 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AA [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C87 Kannada KANNADA LETTER I [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C88 Kannada KANNADA LETTER II [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C89 Kannada KANNADA LETTER U [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C8A Kannada KANNADA LETTER UU [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C8B Kannada KANNADA LETTER VOCALIC R [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C8E Kannada KANNADA LETTER E [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C8F Kannada KANNADA LETTER EE [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C90 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AI [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C92 Kannada KANNADA LETTER O [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C93 Kannada KANNADA LETTER OO [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C94 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AU [0], [110], [111] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C95 Kannada KANNADA LETTER KA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C96 Kannada KANNADA LETTER KHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C97 Kannada KANNADA LETTER GA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C98 Kannada KANNADA LETTER GHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C99 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NGA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C9A Kannada KANNADA LETTER CA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C9B Kannada KANNADA LETTER CHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C9C Kannada KANNADA LETTER JA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C9D Kannada KANNADA LETTER JHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C9E Kannada KANNADA LETTER NYA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0C9F Kannada KANNADA LETTER TTA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA0 Kannada KANNADA LETTER TTHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA1 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DDA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA2 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DDHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA3 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NNA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA4 Kannada KANNADA LETTER TA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA5 Kannada KANNADA LETTER THA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA6 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA7 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CA8 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CAA Kannada KANNADA LETTER PA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CAB Kannada KANNADA LETTER PHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CAC Kannada KANNADA LETTER BA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CAD Kannada KANNADA LETTER BHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CAE Kannada KANNADA LETTER MA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CAF Kannada KANNADA LETTER YA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB0 Kannada KANNADA LETTER RA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB2 Kannada KANNADA LETTER LA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB3 Kannada KANNADA LETTER LLA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB5 Kannada KANNADA LETTER VA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB6 Kannada KANNADA LETTER SHA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB7 Kannada KANNADA LETTER SSA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB8 Kannada KANNADA LETTER SA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CB9 Kannada KANNADA LETTER HA [0], [110], [111] Consonant      
U+0CBE  ಾ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN AA [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CBF  ಿ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN I [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC0  ೀ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN II [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC1  ು Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN U [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC2  ೂ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN UU [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC3  ೃ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC6  ೆ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN E [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC7  ೇ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN EE [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CC8  ೈ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN AI [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CCA  ೊ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN O [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CCB  ೋ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN OO [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CCC  ೌ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN AU [0], [110], [111] Matra follows-C    
U+0CCD  ್ Kannada KANNADA SIGN VIRAMA [0], [110], [111] Halant follows-C   = Halant
U+0CE6 Kannada KANNADA DIGIT ZERO [0] Kannada-digit   set 1  
U+0CE7 Kannada KANNADA DIGIT ONE [0] Kannada-digit   set 2  
U+0CE8 Kannada KANNADA DIGIT TWO [0] Kannada-digit   set 3  
U+0CE9 Kannada KANNADA DIGIT THREE [0] Kannada-digit   set 4  
U+0CEA Kannada KANNADA DIGIT FOUR [0] Kannada-digit   set 5  
U+0CEB Kannada KANNADA DIGIT FIVE [0] Kannada-digit   set 6  
U+0CEC Kannada KANNADA DIGIT SIX [0] Kannada-digit   set 7  
U+0CED Kannada KANNADA DIGIT SEVEN [0] Kannada-digit   set 8  
U+0CEE Kannada KANNADA DIGIT EIGHT [0] Kannada-digit   set 9  
U+0CEF Kannada KANNADA DIGIT NINE [0] Kannada-digit   set 10  


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.


Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 10
Largest variant set 2
Variants by Type
blocked 20

Variant Sets

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and all variant sets are disjoint.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0030 0 0CE6 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 2 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0031 1 0CE7 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 3 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0032 2 0CE8 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 4 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0033 3 0CE9 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 5 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0034 4 0CEA blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 6 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0035 5 0CEB blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 7 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0036 6 0CEC blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 8 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0037 7 0CED blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 9 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0038 8 0CEE blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Variant Set 10 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0039 9 0CEF blocked   ASCII digit variant / Kannada digit variant

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Number of named classes 6
Implicit (except script) 2
Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
C Tag=Consonant 34 {0C95-0CA8 0CAA-0CB0 0CB2-0CB3 0CB5-0CB9} [110], [111] Any Kannada consonant
V Tag=Vowel 13 {0C85-0C8B 0C8E-0C90 0C92-0C94} [110], [111] Any Kannada independent vowel
M Tag=Matra 12 {0CBE-0CC3 0CC6-0CC8 0CCA-0CCC} [110], [111] Any Kannada vowel sign (matra)
H Tag=Halant 1 {0CCD} [110], [111] The Kannada Halant / Virama
common-digits Tag=Common-digit 10 {0030-0039}   Digits from the ASCII range; ⍟
kannada-digits Tag=Kannada-digit 10 {0CE6-0CEF}   Kannada digits
implicit Tag=Anusvara 1 {0C82}   The character tagged as Anusvara
implicit Tag=Visarga 1 {0C83}   The character tagged as Visarga
implicit Tag=sc:Knda 72 {0C82-0C83 0C85-0C8B 0C8E-0C90 0C92-0CA8 0CAA-0CB0 0CB2-0CB3 0CB5-0CB9 0CBE-0CC3 0CC6-0CC8 0CCA-0CCD 0CE6-0CEF}   Any character tagged as Kannada
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 {002D 0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 6
Used to trigger actions 2
Used as context rule (C) 4
Anchored context rules 4

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[[\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [\p{gc=Mc}]]     [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks ⍟
hyphen-minus-disallowed (((start))← ⚓︎)|(⚓︎ →((end)))|(((start)..\u002D)← ⚓︎)   C [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D -
follows-C ([:C:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 1: H must be preceded by C; WLE 2: M must be preceded by C
follows-C-V-or-M ([:C:]|[:V:]|[:M:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 3: Anusvara must be preceded by C, V or M; WLE 4: Visarga must be preceded by C, V or M
follows-H ([:H:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 5: V cannot be preceded by H
digit-mixing ([:common-digits:].*[:kannada-digits:])|([:kannada-digits:].*[:common-digits:])       restrictions on mixing digits


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
( ) - group
An anonymous nested rule is used to group match operators.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
. - any code point
. matches any code point.
*, +, ?, {n,m} - count operators
* indicates 0 or more, + indicates one or more, and ? indicates up to one instance. {n,m} indicates at least n and at most m instances.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid [150] labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if label matches digit-mixing invalid   a label violating the restriction on digit mixing is invalid
3 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
4 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
5 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
6 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following variant types are used in one or more actions, but are not defined in this LGR: allocatable, out-of-repertoire-var. This is not necessarily an error.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the References section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[110] ಕನ್ನಡ ಮಧ್ಯಮ ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ, ತೀ.ನಂ. ಶ್ರೀಕಂಠಯ್ಯ, ಗೀತಾ ಬುಕ್ ಹೌಸ್, ಮೈಸೂರು, ೨೦೦೧ /Kannada Madhyama Vyakarana/ (An Intermediate Kannada Grammar), T. N. Sreekantaiya, Geetha Book House, Mysore, 2001.
[111] Omniglot, Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ),
[150] RFC 5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol