Reference LGR for language: Hindi (hi) lgr-second-level-hindi-language-24jan24-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2024-01-24
LGR Version 3 (Second Level Reference LGR)
Language hi (Hindi Language)
Unicode Version 11.0.0



  • These instructions cover how to adopt an LGR based on this reference LGR for a given zone and how to prepare the file for deposit in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices.
  • As described the IANA procedure
    an LGR MUST contain the following elements in its header:
    • Script or Language Designator (see below for guidance)
    • Version Number (this must increase with each amendment to the LGR, even if the updates are limited to the header itself)
    • Effective Date (the date at which the policy becomes applicable in operational use)
    • Registry Contact Details (contact name, email address, and/or phone number)
  • The following information is optional:
    • Document creation date
    • Applicable Domain(s)
    • Changes made to the Reference LGR before adopting

Please add or modify the following items in the XML source code for this file before depositing the document in the IANA Repository.

Meta Data

Note: version numbers start at 1. RFC 7940 recommends using simple integers. The version comment is optional, please replace or delete the default comment. Version comments may be used by some tools as part of the page header.

<version comment="[Please replace (or delete) the optional comment]">[Please fill in version number, starting at 1]</version>

<date>[Please fill in with publication date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</date>

<validity-start>[Please fill in effective date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</validity-start>

Note: the scope element may be repeated, so that the same document can serve for multiple domains.

<scope type="domain">[Please provide, in ".domain" format]</scope>

Registry Contact Information:

Please fill in the Registry Contact Details.

Change History

If you made technical modifications to the LGR, please summarize them in the Change History (and also note the details in the appropriate section of the description).


Registry Contact Details

Label Generation Rules for the Hindi language


This document specifies a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Hindi language for the second level domain or domains identified above. The ultimate starting point for the development of this LGR can be found in the related Root Zone LGR [RZ-LGR-Deva]. Note that while it is the Devanagari Script Root Zone LGR that forms the starting point, the LGR defined here covers the Hindi Language. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940]. This LGR is adapted from the “Reference LGR for the Second Level for the Hindi Language” [Ref-LGR-hi-Deva], for details, see Change History below.

For details and additional background on the Devanagari script, see “Proposal for a Devanagari Script Root Zone Label Generation Rule-Set (LGR)" [Proposal-Devanagari].

Standalone LGR: This LGR is designed to be used in a zone that does not cater to IDNs other than those valid under this LGR. This LGR lacks features that would allow its use in the context of another LGR in the same zone, and it may contain other features incompatible with such use.


The repertoire contains 61 code points for letters for use in the Hindi language in addition to 7 sequences used for in-script variants (see “Variants” below). The repertoire is a subset of [Unicode 11.0.0]. For details, see Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Devanagari]. (The proposal cited has been adopted for the Devanagari script portion of the Root Zone LGR.)

For the second level, the repertoire has been augmented with the HYPHEN-MINUS, and two sets of decimal digits:

  • European (common) digits
  • Devanagari digits

for a total of 91 repertoire elements.

Any code points outside the Hindi Language repertoire that are targets for out-of-repertoire variants would be included here only if the variant is listed in this file. In this case they are identified as a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. Whether or not they are listed, they do not form part of the repertoire.

Repertoire Listing: Each code point or range is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, one or more tag values denoting character category, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire, see “References” below. For code points that are part of the repertoire, comments identify the languages using the code point.


This LGR is designed for use in zones shared by more than one script. For details, see Section 3, “Use of Multiple Reference LGRs in the Same Zone” in [Level-2-Overview]. Where appropriate, cross-script variants have been defined to mutually exclude labels from different scripts that could otherwise be substituted by the users. Once a label has been delegated for one script, any of its variant labels consisting entirely of cross-script variants would be blocked. Any label containing at least one code point that is not a cross-script variant would be considered distinct. Because of that, even large numbers of defined cross-script variants generally do not lead to a high percentage of labels experiencing a collision.

This LGR defines in-script variants variants as described in Section 6, “Variants”, in “[Proposal-Devanagari]”. The in-script variants are based on Candrabindu and Candra Vowel Signs followed by Anusvara plus digit variants.

Digit Variants: All Devanagari digits are treated as semantic variants of the corresponding common (ASCII) digits. By transitivity, they are also semantic variants of any native digits in scripts that also include the common digits. Such variant relations are deemed to exist implicitly by transitivity but are not listed explicitly in each reference LGR. Instead, if needed, they are applied by using the Common LGR in label processing.

In particular, Devanagari digit ZERO is a cross-script homoglyph or near homoglyph of digit ZERO in many other scripts; these are already implicit semantic variants by transitivity and therefore not listed here.

Note that in addition to a transitive semantic variant relation, Devanagari digits ZERO, TWO, FOUR, FIVE and EIGHT reperesent cross-script homoglyph or near homoglyph forms of the corresponding Gujarati digits.

To keep digit variant sets manageable in zones where multiple scripts are present, no attempt has been made at identifying cross-script variants among digits of different numeric value or between a digit in one script and a letter in another, such as between digit zero and Latin letter ‘o’. Other mechanisms may be required to prevent homograph labels.

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”; labels that differ only by these variants are mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent label should be blocked. There is no preference among these labels.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

Context Rules for Variants: some of the variants defined in this LGR are “effective null variants”, that is, some code points in the source map to “nothing” in the target with all other code points unchanged. (Because mappings are symmetric, it does not matter whether it is the forward or reverse mapping that maps to “null”.) Such variants require a context rule to keep the variant set well behaved.

In other cases, the sequences or code points making up source and target are constrained by explicit context rules on the code points (or by implicit context rules defined for the adjacent code points). In such a case, any variants may require context rules that match the intersection between the effective contexts for both source and target; otherwise, a sequence might be considered valid in some variant label when it would not be valid in an equivalent context in an original label. Symmetry requires the same context rule for both forward and reverse mappings.

The specification of variants in this LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

Devanagari is an alphasyllabary and the heart of the writing system is the akshar. This is the unit which is instinctively recognized by users of the script. As encoded, the writing system of Devanagari is composed of Consonants, Halant, Vowels, Anusvara, Candrabindu, Nukta and Visarga.

Consonants: Devanagari consonants all contain an implicit schwa /ə/. To make a full syllable, consonants may be followed by certain code points from one or more of the other groups (see “WLE rules” below). See Section 3.3.1, “The Consonants” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Halant: Because all consonants contain an implicit vowel /ə/, a special sign is needed to denote that this implicit vowel is stripped off. This sign is the Halant, encoded as U+094D  ्  DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA. The Halant thus joins two consonants and creates conjuncts, which can be generally from 2 to 4 consonant combinations. In rare cases, it can join up to 5 consonants. However, this LGR will not enforce any length limit. See Section 3.3.2, “The Implicit Vowel Killer: Halant” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Vowels and Matras: There are separate code points for vowels that are pronounced independently at the beginning of a syllable or after a vowel sound. To indicate a vowel sound following a consonant other than the implicit shwa sound, a vowel sign (matra) is attached to the consonant. There is an equivalent matra for each vowel excepting U+0905 DEVANAGARI VOWEL A. See Section 3.3.3, “Vowels” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Anusvara: The Anusvara shows a nasal at the end of a syllable. See Section 3.3.4, “The Anusvara” of the [Proposal-Devanagari].

Candrabindu: A Candrabindu denotes nasalization of the preceding vowel. Present-day Hindi users tend to replace the Candrabindu by the Anusvara. See Section 3.3.5, “Nasalization: Candrabindu” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Nukta: The nukta sign is placed below a certain number of consonants to represent sounds found only in words borrowed from Perso-Arabic, English and other non-Aryan sources. It is also placed under the consonants U+0921 and U+0922 to indicate flapped sounds. See Section 3.3.6, “Nukta” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Visarga: U+0903  ः  DEVANAGARI SIGN VISARGA, representing an aspiration at the end of a syllable, is frequently used in Sanskrit. See Section 3.3.7, “Visarga and Avagraha” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Devanagari Digits: U+0966 to U+096F are a set of Devanagari-specific digits. They are used in alternation with the European (common) digits.

Common Digits: U+0030 0 to U+0039 9 are the set of digits from the ASCII range.

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Common Rules

The LGR includes the rules and actions to implement the following restrictions, some of which are mandated by the IDNA protocol. They are marked with ⍟ and included here by default.

  • Hyphen Restrictions — restrictions on the allowable placement of hyphens (no leading/ending hyphen and no hyphen in positions 3 and 4). These restrictions are described in Section of RFC 5891 [150]. They are implemented here as context rule on U+002D (-) HYPHEN-MINUS.
  • Leading Combining Marks — restrictions on the allowable placement of combining marks (no leading combining mark). This rule is described in Section of RFC 5891 [150].
  • Digit-mixing — no mixing between different digit sets (European and Devanagari digits) is allowed; implemented here as a WLE rule with associated action.

Default Actions

This LGR includes the complete set default actions for LGRs as well as the action needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks. They are marked with ⍟. For a description see [RFC 7940] and [150]. An additional action is triggered by mixed digit labels.

Hindi-specific Rules

These rules ensure that the Hindi label conforms to akshar formation norms for the Devanagari script. These norms are exclusively presented as context rules.

The following symbols are used in the names and comments for WLE rules:

  • C → Consonant
  • M → Matra
  • V → Vowel
  • B → Anusvara (Bindu)
  • D → Candrabindu
  • X → Visarga
  • H → Halant / Virama
  • N → Nukta

The rules are:

  • 1. N: must be preceded by C1
  • 2. H: must be preceded by C or CN
  • 3. M: must be preceded by C or CN
  • 4. X: must be preceded by any of V, C, N or M
  • 5. B: must be preceded by any of V, C, N or M
  • 6. D: must be preceded by any of V, C, N or M
  • 7. V: Can NOT be preceded by H

See Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation Rules (WLE)” in [Proposal-Devanagari].

Methodology and Contributors

The LGR in this document has been adapted from the corresponding Reference LGR for the Second Level. The Second Level Reference LGR for the Hindi Language was developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, based on the Root Zone LGR for the Devanagari script and information contained or referenced therein; see [RZ-LGR-Deva]. Suitable extensions for the second level have been applied according to the [Guidelines] and with community input. As part of that process, features have been removed or modified as appropriate for the target language. The original proposal for a Root Zone LGR for the Devanagari script, that this LGR is based on, was developed by the Devanagari Generation Panel. For more information on methodology and contributors to the underlying Root Zone LGR, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Devanagari], as well as [RZ-LGR-Overview].

Changes from Version Dated 15 December 2020

Language tag has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 18 May 2021

Unicode Version has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 24 January 2024

Adopted from the Second Level Reference LGR for the Hindi Language [Ref-LGR-hi-Deva] without normative changes.


The following general references are cited in this document:

Lewis and Simons, “EGIDS: Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale,” documented in [SIL-Ethnologue] and summarized here:
ICANN, “Guidelines for Developing Reference LGRs for the Second Level”, (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 27 May 2020),
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, (ICANN),“Reference Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Second Level: Overview and Summary” (PDF), (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 24 January 2024),
Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Devanagari Script Root Zone Label Generation Rule-Set (LGR)”, 22 April 2019,
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022 (PDF),
ICANN, Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Devanagari Script (und-Deva), 26 May 2022 (XML)
David M. Eberhard, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2021. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty fourth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version available as
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Hindi Language (hi-Deva), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
[Unicode 11.0.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Hindi Language for the second level please see details in the Table of References below.

Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard versions in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. References [100] and above correspond to sources given in [Proposal-Devanagari] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values. In the listing of whole label evaluation and context rules, reference [150] indicates the source for common rules.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 91
Number of code points
for each script
Devanagari 73
Common 11
Number of code points 84
Number of sequences 7
Longest code point sequence 2

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Variants Comment
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0]   not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] Common-digit   set 1
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] Common-digit   set 2
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] Common-digit   set 3
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] Common-digit   set 4
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] Common-digit   set 5
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] Common-digit   set 6
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] Common-digit   set 7
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] Common-digit   set 8
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] Common-digit   set 9
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] Common-digit   set 10
U+0901  ँ Devanagari DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU [0], [101] Candrabindu follows-V-or-C-or-N-or-M set 11 Hindi
U+0902  ं Devanagari DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA [0], [101] Anusvara follows-V-or-C-or-N-or-M   Hindi
U+0903  ः Devanagari DEVANAGARI SIGN VISARGA [0], [101] Visarga follows-V-or-C-or-N-or-M   Hindi
U+0905 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER A [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0906 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER AA [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0906 U+0901 आँ {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI LETTER AA + DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU   [Vowel] + [Candrabindu] not: preceded-by-H set 12  
U+0907 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER I [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0908 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER II [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0909 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER U [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+090A Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER UU [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+090B Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC R [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+090D Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA E [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+090D U+0902 ऍं {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA E + DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA   [Vowel] + [Anusvara] not: preceded-by-H set 13  
U+090F Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER E [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+090F U+0901 एँ {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI LETTER E + DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU   [Vowel] + [Candrabindu] not: preceded-by-H set 13  
U+0910 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER AI [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0911 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA O [0], [100], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0911 U+0902 ऑं {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA O + DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA   [Vowel] + [Anusvara] not: preceded-by-H set 12  
U+0913 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER O [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0914 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER AU [0], [101] Vowel not: preceded-by-H   Hindi
U+0915 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER KA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+0916 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER KHA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+0917 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER GA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+0918 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER GHA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0919 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER NGA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+091A Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER CA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+091B Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER CHA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+091C Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER JA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+091D Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER JHA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+091E Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER NYA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+091F Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER TTA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0920 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER TTHA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0921 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER DDA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+0922 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER DDHA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+0923 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER NNA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0924 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER TA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0925 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER THA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0926 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER DA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0927 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER DHA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0928 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER NA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+092A Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER PA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+092B Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER PHA [0], [101] C1, Consonant     Hindi
U+092C Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER BA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+092D Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER BHA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+092E Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER MA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+092F Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER YA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0930 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER RA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0932 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER LA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0935 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER VA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0936 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER SHA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0937 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER SSA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0938 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER SA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+0939 Devanagari DEVANAGARI LETTER HA [0], [101] Consonant     Hindi
U+093C  ़ Devanagari DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA [0], [101], [109] Nukta follows-C1   Hindi
U+093E  ा Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AA [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+093E U+0901  ाँ {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AA + DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU   [Matra] + [Candrabindu] follows-C-or-CN set 14  
U+093F  ि Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN I [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0940  ी Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN II [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0941  ु Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN U [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0942  ू Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN UU [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0943  ृ Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0945  ॅ Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA E [0], [100], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   = candra; Hindi
U+0945 U+0902  ॅं {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA E + DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA   [Matra] + [Anusvara] follows-C-or-CN set 11  
U+0947  े Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN E [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0948  ै Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AI [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0949  ॉ Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA O [0], [100] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+0949 U+0902  ॉं {Devanagari} DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA O + DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA   [Matra] + [Anusvara] follows-C-or-CN set 14  
U+094B  ो Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN O [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+094C  ौ Devanagari DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AU [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-CN   Hindi
U+094D  ् Devanagari DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA [0], [101] Halant follows-C-or-CN   = halant; suppresses inherent vowel: Hindi
U+0966 Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT ZERO [0] Devanagari-digit   set 1  
U+0967 Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT ONE [0] Devanagari-digit   set 2  
U+0968 Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT TWO [0] Devanagari-digit   set 3  
U+0969 Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT THREE [0] Devanagari-digit   set 4  
U+096A Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT FOUR [0] Devanagari-digit   set 5  
U+096B Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT FIVE [0] Devanagari-digit   set 6  
U+096C Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT SIX [0] Devanagari-digit   set 7  
U+096D Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT SEVEN [0] Devanagari-digit   set 8  
U+096E Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT EIGHT [0] Devanagari-digit   set 9  
U+096F Devanagari DEVANAGARI DIGIT NINE [0] Devanagari-digit   set 10  


Throughout this LGR, a code point sequence may be annotated with a string in ALL CAPS that is constructed on the same principle as a name for a Unicode Named Sequence. No claim is made that a sequence thus annotated is in fact a named sequence, nor that the annotation in such case actually corresponds to the formal name of a named sequence.

Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common. Sequences are annotated with a set of all distinct script values.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database. Named sequences are listed with their normative names, for ad-hoc sequences the individual names are shown separated by “+”.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view. For sequences, the tags for all member code points are shown in [] for information; sequences as such do not have tags.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.


Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 14
Largest variant set 2
Variants by Type
blocked 28

Variant Sets

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and variant sets for each context are disjoint, but code points that have variants with multiple contexts are members of more than one set.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR.
Required Context
Link to the rule defining a required context the source must satisfy for the variant mapping to be defined. If prefixed by “not:”, identifies a context that must not occur.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0030 0 0966 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 2 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0031 1 0967 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 3 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0032 2 0968 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 4 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0033 3 0969 blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 5 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0034 4 096A blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 6 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0035 5 096B blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 7 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0036 6 096C blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 8 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0037 7 096D blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 9 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0038 8 096E blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 10 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0039 9 096F blocked   ASCII digit variant / Devanagari digit variant

Variant Set 11 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Required Context Ref Comment
0901  ँ 0945 0902  ॅं blocked follows-C-or-CN   Devanagari variant

Variant Set 12 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0906 0901 आँ 0911 0902 ऑं blocked   Devanagari variant

Variant Set 13 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
090D 0902 ऍं 090F 0901 एँ blocked    

Variant Set 14 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
093E 0901  ाँ 0949 0902  ॉं blocked    

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Number of named classes 8
Implicit (except script) 3
Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
C Tag=Consonant 33 {0915-0928 092A-0930 0932 0935-0939}   Any Devanagari consonant
C1 Tag=C1 9 {0915-0917 091A-091C 0921-0922 092B}   Consonants followed by Devanagari Nukta
V Tag=Vowel 13 {0905-090B 090D 090F-0911 0913-0914}   Any Devanagari independent vowel
M Tag=Matra 12 {093E-0943 0945 0947-0949 094B-094C}   Any Devanagari vowel sign (matra)
H Tag=Halant 1 {094D}   The Devanagari Halant (VIRAMA)
N Tag=Nukta 1 {093C}   The Devanagari Nukta
common-digits Tag=Common-digit 10 {0030-0039}   Digits from the ASCII range; ⍟
devanagari-digits Tag=Devanagari-digit 10 {0966-096F}   Devanagari digits
implicit Tag=Anusvara 1 {0902}   The character tagged as Anusvara
implicit Tag=Candrabindu 1 {0901}   The character tagged as Candrabindu
implicit Tag=Visarga 1 {0903}   The character tagged as Visarga
implicit Tag=sc:Deva 73 {0901-0903 0905-090B 090D 090F-0911 0913-0928 092A-0930 0932 0935-0939 093C 093E-0943 0945 0947-0949 094B-094D 0966-096F}   Any character tagged as Devanagari
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 {002D 0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 7
Used to trigger actions 2
Used as context rule (C) 5
Used as context rule (V) 1
Anchored context rules 5

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[[\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [\p{gc=Mc}]]     [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks ⍟
hyphen-minus-disallowed (((start))← ⚓︎)|(⚓︎ →((end)))|(((start)..\u002D)← ⚓︎)   C [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D -
follows-C1 ([:C1:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 1: Rule for Nukta which restricts its preceding characters
follows-C-or-CN ([:C:]|([:C:][:N:]))← ⚓︎   C, V   Section 7, WLE 2, 3: Halant or matra characters can only be preceded by consonant or a Nukta which is preceded by a consonant
follows-V-or-C-or-N-or-M ([:V:]|[:C:]|[:N:]|[:M:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 4, 5, 6: Anusvara, Candrabindu or Visarga characters can only be preceded by either vowel or consonant or Nukta or matra
preceded-by-H ([:H:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 7: A vowel is not allowed to follow an H
digit-mixing ([:common-digits:].*[:devanagari-digits:])|([:devanagari-digits:].*[:common-digits:])       restrictions on mixing digits


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
( ) - group
An anonymous nested rule is used to group match operators.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
. - any code point
. matches any code point.
*, +, ?, {n,m} - count operators
* indicates 0 or more, + indicates one or more, and ? indicates up to one instance. {n,m} indicates at least n and at most m instances.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid [150] labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if label matches digit-mixing invalid   a label violating the restriction on digit mixing is invalid
3 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
4 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
5 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
6 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following variant types are used in one or more actions, but are not defined in this LGR: allocatable, out-of-repertoire-var. This is not necessarily an error.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the References section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[100] Devanāgarī VIP Team, "Variant Issues Report", ICANN 3 Oct. 2011,
(Accessed on 10 Oct. 2017)
[101] Omniglot, "Hindi",
(Accessed on 10 Oct. 2017)
[109] Central Hindi Directorate-Ministry of HRD-Govt. of India, "Devanāgarī Alphabet and its Romanization",
(Accessed on 12 Dec. 2017)
[150] RFC 5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol