Reference LGR for language: Hebrew (he) lgr-second-level-hebrew-language-24jan24-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2024-01-24
LGR Version 3 (Second Level Reference LGR)
Language he (Hebrew Language)
Unicode Version 11.0.0



  • These instructions cover how to adopt an LGR based on this reference LGR for a given zone and how to prepare the file for deposit in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices.
  • As described the IANA procedure
    an LGR MUST contain the following elements in its header:
    • Script or Language Designator (see below for guidance)
    • Version Number (this must increase with each amendment to the LGR, even if the updates are limited to the header itself)
    • Effective Date (the date at which the policy becomes applicable in operational use)
    • Registry Contact Details (contact name, email address, and/or phone number)
  • The following information is optional:
    • Document creation date
    • Applicable Domain(s)
    • Changes made to the Reference LGR before adopting

Please add or modify the following items in the XML source code for this file before depositing the document in the IANA Repository.

Meta Data

Note: version numbers start at 1. RFC 7940 recommends using simple integers. The version comment is optional, please replace or delete the default comment. Version comments may be used by some tools as part of the page header.

<version comment="[Please replace (or delete) the optional comment]">[Please fill in version number, starting at 1]</version>

<date>[Please fill in with publication date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</date>

<validity-start>[Please fill in effective date, in YYYY-MM-DD format]</validity-start>

Note: the scope element may be repeated, so that the same document can serve for multiple domains.

<scope type="domain">[Please provide, in ".domain" format]</scope>

Registry Contact Information:

Please fill in the Registry Contact Details.

Change History

If you made technical modifications to the LGR, please summarize them in the Change History (and also note the details in the appropriate section of the description).


Registry Contact Details

Label Generation Rules for the Hebrew Language


This document specifies a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Hebrew language for the second level domain or domains identified above. The ultimate starting point for the development of this LGR can be found in the related Root Zone LGR [RZ-LGR-Hebr]. Note that while it is the Hebrew Script Root Zone LGR that forms the starting point, the LGR defined here covers the Hebrew Language. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940]. This LGR is adapted from the “Reference LGR for the Second Level for the Hebrew Language” [Ref-LGR-he-Hebr], for details, see Change History below.

For details and additional background on the Hebrew script, see “Proposal for Hebrew Script Root Zone LGR”, Version 1.2, February 2019 [Proposal-Hebrew].

Standalone LGR: This LGR is designed to be used in a zone that does not cater to IDNs other than those valid under this LGR. This LGR lacks features that would allow its use in the context of another LGR in the same zone, and it may contain other features incompatible with such use.


The repertoire contains 27 code points for letters, 5 of which are variants (final forms) of 5 others. The repertoire supports the Hebrew language with restrictions appropriate for domain names. The repertoire is a subset of [Unicode 11.0.0]. For details, see Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Hebrew]. (The proposal cited has been adopted for the Hebrew script portion of the Root Zone LGR.)

The Hebrew script is written from right to left. More details can be found in Section 3, “Background About the Script and Languages Using it” in [Proposal-Hebrew].

For the second level, the repertoire has been augmented with the ASCII digits, U+0030 0 to U+0039 9, plus U+002D - HYPHEN-MINUS, for a total of 38 repertoire elements.

Any code points outside the Hebrew Language repertoire that are targets for out-of-repertoire variants would be included here only if the variant is listed in this file. In this case they are identified as a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. Whether or not they are listed, they do not form part of the repertoire.

Repertoire Listing: Each code point or range is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire, see “References” below. Comments provide additional information for some code points.


This LGR defines five in-script variants that are final forms of Hebrew letters. For details, see Section 6, “Variants”, in “[Proposal-Hebrew]”.

No ASCII Variants: This LGR does not contain definitions for “blocked” variants for letters that look indistinguishable from ASCII letters (homoglyphs). If concurrent use of LDH labels is desired, the resulting conflicts can be handled by using the “Common LGR” in processing. For details, see Section 3, “Use of Multiple Reference LGRs in the Same Zone” in [Level-2-Overview].

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent label should be blocked. There is no preference among these labels.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in this LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

This LGR does not define named character classes.

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Common Rules

By default, the LGR includes the rules and actions to implement the following restrictions mandated by the IDNA protocol. They are marked with ⍟.

  • Hyphen Restrictions — restrictions on the allowable placement of hyphens (no leading/ending hyphen and no hyphen in positions 3 and 4). These restrictions are described in Section of RFC 5891 [150]. They are implemented here as context rule on U+002D (-) HYPHEN-MINUS.
  • Leading Combining Marks — restrictions on the allowable placement of combining marks (no leading combining mark). This rule is described in Section of RFC 5891 [150].

Right-To-Left Rules

  • leading-digit — RFC 5893 [160] restrictions on the allowable placement of digits (no leading digit), see section 2.1; implemented here as a context rule on each digit.

Default Actions

This LGR includes the default actions for LGRs as well as the action needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks. They are marked with ⍟. For a description see [RFC 7940].

Hebrew-specific Rules

This LGR does not define rules specific to the Hebrew script.

Methodology and Contributors

The LGR in this document has been adapted from the corresponding Reference LGR for the Second Level. The Second Level Reference LGR for the Hebrew Language was developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, based on the Root Zone LGR for the Hebrew script and information contained or referenced therein; see [RZ-LGR-Hebr]. Suitable extensions for the second level have been applied according to the [Guidelines] and with community input. As part of that process, features have been removed or modified as appropriate for the target language. The original proposal for a Root Zone LGR for the Hebrew script, that this LGR is based on, was developed by the Hebrew Generation Panel. For more information on methodology and contributors to the underlying Root Zone LGR, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Hebrew], as well as [RZ-LGR-Overview].

[IL-IDN] was consulted during the work on this LGR.

Changes from Version Dated 22 April 2021

Language tag has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 18 May 2021

Unicode Version has been updated.

Changes from Version Dated 24 January 2024

Adopted from the Second Level Reference LGR for the Hebrew Language [Ref-LGR-he-Hebr] without normative changes.


The following references are cited in the first part of this document:

ICANN, “Guidelines for Developing Reference LGRs for the Second Level”, (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 27 May 2020),
Hebrew IDN Table for .IL
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, (ICANN),“Reference Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Second Level: Overview and Summary” (PDF), (Los Angeles, California: ICANN, 24 January 2024),
Hebrew Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Hebrew Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, 24 April 2019,
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022 (PDF),
ICANN, Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Hebrew Script (und-Hebr), 26 May 2022 (XML)
ICANN, Second Level Reference Label Generation Rules for the Hebrew Language (he-Hebr), 24 January 2024 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
[Unicode 11.0.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Hebrew Language for the second level please see details in the Table of References below.

Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. References [101] and above correspond to sources given in [Proposal-Hebrew] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points or rules. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values. In the listing of whole label evaluation and context rules, references [150] and [160] indicate the source for common rules.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 38
Number of code points
for each script
Hebrew 27
Common 11
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Variants Comment
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0]   not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] Common-digit not: leading-digit  
U+05D0 א Hebrew HEBREW LETTER ALEF [0], [101]        
U+05D1 ב Hebrew HEBREW LETTER BET [0], [101]        
U+05D2 ג Hebrew HEBREW LETTER GIMEL [0], [101]        
U+05D3 ד Hebrew HEBREW LETTER DALET [0], [101]        
U+05D4 ה Hebrew HEBREW LETTER HE [0], [101]        
U+05D5 ו Hebrew HEBREW LETTER VAV [0], [101]        
U+05D6 ז Hebrew HEBREW LETTER ZAYIN [0], [101]        
U+05D7 ח Hebrew HEBREW LETTER HET [0], [101]        
U+05D8 ט Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TET [0], [101]        
U+05D9 י Hebrew HEBREW LETTER YOD [0], [101]        
U+05DA ך Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL KAF [0], [101]     set 1 Final form
U+05DB כ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER KAF [0], [101]     set 1 Nominal form
U+05DC ל Hebrew HEBREW LETTER LAMED [0], [101]        
U+05DD ם Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL MEM [0], [101]     set 2 Final form
U+05DE מ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER MEM [0], [101]     set 2 Nominal form
U+05DF ן Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL NUN [0], [101]     set 3 Final form
U+05E0 נ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER NUN [0], [101]     set 3 Nominal form
U+05E1 ס Hebrew HEBREW LETTER SAMEKH [0], [101]        
U+05E2 ע Hebrew HEBREW LETTER AYIN [0], [101]        
U+05E3 ף Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL PE [0], [101]     set 4 Final form
U+05E4 פ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER PE [0], [101]     set 4 Nominal form
U+05E5 ץ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI [0], [101]     set 5 Final form
U+05E6 צ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TSADI [0], [101]     set 5 Nominal form
U+05E7 ק Hebrew HEBREW LETTER QOF [0], [101]        
U+05E8 ר Hebrew HEBREW LETTER RESH [0], [101]        
U+05E9 ש Hebrew HEBREW LETTER SHIN [0], [101]        
U+05EA ת Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TAV [0], [101]        


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.


Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 5
Largest variant set 2
Variants by Type
blocked 10

Variant Sets

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and all variant sets are disjoint.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05DA ך 05DB כ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 2 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05DD ם 05DE מ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 3 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05DF ן 05E0 נ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 4 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05E3 ף 05E4 פ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 5 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05E5 ץ 05E6 צ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Implicit (except script) 1
Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
implicit Tag=Common-digit 10 {0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common-digit
implicit Tag=sc:Hebr 27 {05D0-05EA}   Any character tagged as Hebrew
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 {002D 0030-0039}   Any character tagged as Common


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 3
Used to trigger actions 1
Used as context rule (C) 2
Anchored context rules 2

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[∅=[[∅=\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [∅=\p{gc=Mc}]]]     [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks ⍟
hyphen-minus-disallowed (((start))← ⚓︎)|(⚓︎ →((end)))|(((start)..\u002D)← ⚓︎)   C [150] RFC 5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D -
leading-digit ((start))← ⚓︎   C [160] RFC 5893 RTL labels cannot start with a digit ⍟


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
( ) - group
An anonymous nested rule is used to group match operators.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
. - any code point
. matches any code point.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
∅= - empty set
Indicates that the following set is empty because of the result of set operations, or because none of its elements is part of the repertoire defined here. A rule with a non-optional empty set never matches.
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid [150] labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
5 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Note: The following variant types are used in one or more actions, but are not defined in this LGR: allocatable, out-of-repertoire-var. This is not necessarily an error.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the References section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1/
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[101] Omniglot, Hebrew (עברית)
[150] RFC 5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol
[160] RFC 5893, Right-to-Left Scripts for Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)