LGR for language heb-Hebr — Hebrew

This document is mechanically formatted from the XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2016-08-30
LGR Version 1
Language heb-Hebr
Unicode Version 6.3.0


Label Generation Rules for Hebrew


This document specifies a reference set of Label Generation Rules for Hebrew using a limited repertoire as appropriate for a second level domain.


All references converge on 27 Hebrew code points. The auxiliary set of CLDR extends the core set by adding 17 combining marks (points), and 2 format characters. The latter are not IDNA PVALID, therefore they cannot be part of the LGR. The 17 Hebrew points have the Bidi property NSM, while the core repertoire contains code points with Bidi properties: ES, EN, and R. Three of the Hebrew points: dagesh, shin dot and sin dot are used for consonant modification, and two of them: U+05C1 (ׁ) HEBREW POINT SHIN DOT and U+05C2 (ׂ) HEBREW POINT SIN DOT are only used in conjunction with U+05E9 (ש) HEBREW LETTER SHIN (see [603]). Based on current use of IDN labels for Hebrew [700], having any Hebrew points in the LGR repertoire seems unnecessary.

There is an IDN table published in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices for Hebrew by .il (Israel cctld) [700].

Excluded code points

Letters documented in some references but not included (only PVALID code points are listed):

Extended code points



There are no variants in the core repertoire.

Character Classes

This LGR defines no named character classes.


Common rules:

Right-to-left rule:

Because this LGR contains only a subset of PVALID code points, and in particular does not allow ASCII mixing or any left-to-right code points, the Bidi rules defined in RFC 5893 [121] can be simplified to preventing European digits from starting a label (hyphen-minus and all combining marks cannot be leading because of other rules).


Actions included are the default actions for LGRs as well as those needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks.

Methodology and Contributors

This reference LGR for Hebrew for the 2nd Level has been developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, verified in expert reviews by Michael Everson, Nicholas Ostler, and Wil Tan, and based on multiple open public consultations.


General references for the language:

In the listing of the repertoire by code point, references starting from [0] refer to the version of the Unicode Standard in which the corresponding code point was initially encoded. Other references (starting from [100]) document usage of code points. For more details, see the Table of References below.



Number of elements in Repertoire 38
Total entries in table 38
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

Glyph Script Name References Tags Required Context Part of
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0] sc:Zyyy not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] sc:Zyyy not: leading-digit  
U+05D0 א Hebrew HEBREW LETTER ALEF [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D1 ב Hebrew HEBREW LETTER BET [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D2 ג Hebrew HEBREW LETTER GIMEL [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D3 ד Hebrew HEBREW LETTER DALET [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D4 ה Hebrew HEBREW LETTER HE [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D5 ו Hebrew HEBREW LETTER VAV [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D6 ז Hebrew HEBREW LETTER ZAYIN [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D7 ח Hebrew HEBREW LETTER HET [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D8 ט Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TET [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05D9 י Hebrew HEBREW LETTER YOD [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05DA ך Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL KAF [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05DB כ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER KAF [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05DC ל Hebrew HEBREW LETTER LAMED [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05DD ם Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL MEM [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05DE מ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER MEM [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05DF ן Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL NUN [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E0 נ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER NUN [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E1 ס Hebrew HEBREW LETTER SAMEKH [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E2 ע Hebrew HEBREW LETTER AYIN [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E3 ף Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL PE [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E4 פ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER PE [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E5 ץ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E6 צ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TSADI [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E7 ק Hebrew HEBREW LETTER QOF [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E8 ר Hebrew HEBREW LETTER RESH [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05E9 ש Hebrew HEBREW LETTER SHIN [0], [100], [201], [401], [603], [700] sc:Hebr    
U+05EA ת Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TAV [0], [100], [201], [401], [700] sc:Hebr    


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to the rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by "not:", identifies a context that must not occur.
If the comment in this row consists only of the code point or sequence name it is suppressed in this view.
✔ - core repertoire
A check mark in the Part-of-Repertoire column indicates a code point is part of the core repertoire.

Variant Sets

This LGR does not specify any variants.

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

The following table lists all named classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
implicit Tag=sc:Hebr 27 Elements: {05D0-05EA}    
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 11 Elements: {002D 0030-0039}    


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named class is defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined class based on tag value.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point. (Any use of context rules for variants is not indicated).

Name Used as
Used as
Anchor Regular Expression Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark     (^[∅=[[∅=\p{gc=Mn}][∅=\p{gc=Mc}]]]) [120] RFC5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks
hyphen-minus-disallowed   ((((?<=^)⚓)|(⚓(?=$))|((?<=^..\u002D)⚓))) [120] RFC5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D
leading-digit   ((?<=^)⚓) [121] RFC5893 restrictions on placement of European digit
extended-cp       (^$)   code points from the extended range


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required context for a code point.
This has a place holder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in the standard notation with some extensions as noted:
⚓ - context anchor
In a regex the ⚓ signifies a placeholder for the actual code point, when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(?<=...) - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
(?=...) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
[\p{ }] - property character set
A character set defined by reference to a value for a given Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. A set defined via "\P" indicates the set complement.
[&&,-,^] - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators (&& = intersection, - = difference, ^ = symmetric difference) or concatenated (union).
∅= - empty set
Indicates that the following set is empty because of the result of set operations, or because none of its elements are part of the repertoire defined here. A rule with a non-optional empty set never matches.
(^$) - empty label
The regex (^$) matches the empty label. Used as a context rule, it always fails to match, thus disallowing the affected code point in any label. By convention, it is used for context rules that disable code points that are not part of the repertoire, yet explicitly listed in the LGR as excluded or for optional future extension.

Note: The following rules are defined but not used in this LGR: extended-cp.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels, based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid   by default, labels with leading combining marks are invalid
2 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action)


{...} - variant type set
In the "Rule/Variant Set" column the notation {...} means a set of variant types.

Table of References

[0] The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 6.3.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2013. ISBN 978-1-936213-08-5)
Any code point cited was originally encoded in Unicode Version 1.1
[1] The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 6.3.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2013. ISBN 978-1-936213-08-5)
Any code point cited was originally encoded in Unicode Version 2.0
[100] Internetstiftelsen i Sverige (IIS), Hebrew
[107] MSR-2 Maximum Starting Repertoire
Code points cited are listed as unsuitable due to limited use
[120] RFC5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol
[121] RFC5893, Right-to-Left Scripts for Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)
[201] Omniglot Hebrew
[401] The Unicode Consortium, Common Locale Data Repository.- CLDR Version 28 (2015-09-16)- Locale Data Summary for Hebrew [he]-
Code points cited are from the set of Main Letters
[402] The Unicode Consortium, Common Locale Data Repository.- CLDR Version 28 (2015-09-16)- Locale Data Summary for Hebrew [he]-
Code points cited are from the set of Auxiliary Letters
[603] Wikipedia Hebrew alphabet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_alphabet accessed 2015-12-01
Code points cited are from the set of Hebrew points
[700] ISOC-IL (.il, Israel cctld)