LGR for language bel-Cyrl — Belarusian

This document is mechanically formatted from the XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2016-05-15
LGR Version 1
Language bel-Cyrl
Scope domain: tld
Unicode Version 6.3.0


Label Generation Rules for Belarusian


This file contains a set of Label Generation Rules for Belarusian using a limited repertoire as appropriate for a second level domain.

This is a DRAFT document released for public comments and not final. Please see the announcement on the ICANN website for public comments on Second Level Reference LGRs for details on how to submit comments. Note: it is anticipated that any code points that were excluded but listed for review will be removed in the finalized version of this file unless their status is changed as result of public comments.


All references converge on 32 Cyrillic code points (23 +9 as defined by RFC 5992 [130]). One source [302], lists U+0449 (щ) CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA and U+044A (ъ) CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN as rare in Belarusian; these appear to be used in Russian words or names, not in Belarusian words and names themselves. In Russian, the hard sign indicates the non-palatalization of a consonant preceding a morpheme beginning with a iotated vowel; in Belarusian this function is met by the use of an apostrophe or of U+02BC (ʼ) (?) MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE.

Note that only U+02BC (ʼ) MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE can be used in IDNA context to designate an apostrophe in a label; other forms of apostrophes such as U+0027 (') APOSTROPHE or U+2019 (’) RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK are DISALLOWED.

There is an IDN table published in the IANA Repository of IDN Practices for Belarus, not under '.by' (Belarus cctld) but in a new tld .бел also administered by Belarus, see [700]. The following text is excerpted from clause 7 from its General Provisions:

"A domain name in domain ".бел" must contain not less than two and no more than sixty three letters of Belarusian or Russian alphabet, numbers, symbols, "hyphen" ("-") and "apostrophe" (" ' "), it must not begin (end) with the symbol "hyphen" ("-") and (or) "apostrophe" (" ' "). When choosing a domain name one should consider writing of the domains on Russian and Belarusian."

This clearly calls for support of a combination of Belarusian and Russian in the extended set. Furthermore, it also calls for a rule concerning the position of apostrophe (again only the modifier version can be used in IDNA) within a label: neither leading nor ending.

The Acute accent may also be used as a stress mark on the vowel of a syllable or to disambiguate between minimal pairs. However, this is rare. See Stress and Disambiguation in [ACUTE].

There is some attested use of U+0438 (и) CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I, U+0449 (щ) CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA, U+044A (ъ) CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN, and U+0491 (ґ) CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN, but they seem to be only used as borrowed letters from Russian and/or Ukrainian. These 4 letters are part of the extended set.

Excluded code points

All letters in some references but not included:

For ease of review, these code points are listed in the repertoire below, but given an "excluded-cp" context that is empty and can never match any label, effectively excluding them from the LGR.

Extended code points

A number of letters not considered essential to writing the core vocabulary of the language are nevertheless in common use. Where they have not been added to the core repertoire, they are flagged as "extended-cp" in the table of code points. A context rule is provided that by default will prohibit labels with extended code points. To support extended single code points or code point sequences, delete the context "extended-cp" from their repertoire definition.




Common rules:


Actions included are the default actions for LGRs as well as those needed to invalidate labels with misplaced combining marks.

Variant-related actions included to facilitate integration as appropriate.

Methodology and Contributors

This reference LGR for Belarusian for the 2nd Level has been developed by Michel Suignard and Asmus Freytag, verified in expert reviews by Michael Everson, Nicholas Ostler, and Wil Tan, and based on multiple open public consultations.


General references for the language:

Other references cited in this document:

Wikipedia, "Acute accent"
Wikepedia, "Hard sign",

In the listing of the repertoire by code point, references starting from [0] refer to the version of the Unicode Standard in which the corresponding code point was initially encoded. Other references, (starting from [100]) document usage of code points. For more details, see the Table of References below.



Number of elements in Repertoire 44
Number of extended elements 4
Number of excluded elements 10
Total entries in table 58
Longest code point sequence 2
Number of code points 48
Number of sequences 10

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where the comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

Glyph Script Name References Tags Required Context Part of
U+002D - Common HYPHEN-MINUS [0] sc:Zyyy not: hyphen-minus-disallowed  
U+0030 0 Common DIGIT ZERO [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0031 1 Common DIGIT ONE [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0032 2 Common DIGIT TWO [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0033 3 Common DIGIT THREE [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0034 4 Common DIGIT FOUR [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0035 5 Common DIGIT FIVE [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0036 6 Common DIGIT SIX [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0037 7 Common DIGIT SEVEN [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0038 8 Common DIGIT EIGHT [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+0039 9 Common DIGIT NINE [0] sc:Zyyy    
U+02BC ʼ Common MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE [0], [201], [301], [600], [700] sc:Zyyy not: apostrophe-modifier-disallowed  
U+0430 а Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0430 U+0301 а́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+0431 б Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0432 в Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0433 г Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0434 д Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0435 е Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0435 U+0301 е́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+0436 ж Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0437 з Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0438 и Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I [0], [302], [700] sc:Cyrl extended-cp  
U+0439 й Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT I [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+043A к Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+043B л Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+043C м Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+043D н Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+043E о Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+043E U+0301 о́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+043F п Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0440 р Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0441 с Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0442 т Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0443 у Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0443 U+0301 у́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+0444 ф Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0445 х Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0446 ц Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0447 ч Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CHE [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0448 ш Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0449 щ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA [0], [302], [700] sc:Cyrl extended-cp  
U+044A ъ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN [0], [302], [700] sc:Cyrl extended-cp  
U+044B ы Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+044B U+0301 ы́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+044C ь Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SOFT SIGN [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+044D э Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+044D U+0301 э́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+044E ю Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+044E U+0301 ю́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+044F я Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+044F U+0301 я́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+0451 ё Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0451 U+0301 ё́ [0], [401]   excluded-cp CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO WITH ACUTE ACCENT
U+0456 і Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+045E ў Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT U [0], [100], [130], [201], [301], [401], [700] sc:Cyrl    
U+0491 ґ Cyrillic CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN [0], [204] sc:Cyrl extended-cp  


Throughout this LGR, a code point sequence may be annotated with a string in ALL CAPS that is constructed on the same principle as a name for a Unicode Named Sequence. No claim is made that a sequence thus annotated is in fact a named sequence, nor that the annotation in such case actually corresponds to the formal name of a named sequence.

Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common. Sequences are not annotated with a script value.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to the rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by "not:", identifies a context that must not occur.
If the comment in this row consists only of the code point or sequence name it is suppressed in this view.
✔ - core repertoire
A check mark in the Part-of-Repertoire column indicates a code point is part of the core repertoire.
◯ - extended repertoire
An open circle indicates a code point is part of an optional extended repertoire, which is normally disabled but could be supported by deleting the relevant context restriction.
✗ - excluded from repertoire
A code point shown with is considered excluded from the repertoire. It is shown only for review purposes.

Variant Sets

This LGR does not specify any variants.

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

The following table lists all top-level classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
implicit Tag=sc:Cyrl 36 Elements: {0430-044F 0451 0456 045E 0491}    
implicit Tag=sc:Zyyy 12 Elements: {002D 0030-0039 02BC}    


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named class is defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined class based on tag value.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

The following table lists all the top-level, or named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point. (Any use of context rules for variants is not indicated).

Name Used as
Used as
Anchor Regular Expression Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark     (^[[\p{gc=Mn}][∅=\p{gc=Mc}]]) [120] RFC5891 restrictions on placement of combining marks
hyphen-minus-disallowed   ((((?<=^)⚓)|(⚓(?=$))|((?<=^..\u002D)⚓))) [120] RFC5891 restrictions on placement of U+002D
apostrophe-modifier-disallowed   ((((?<=^)⚓)|(⚓(?=$)))) [700] restrictions on placement of U+02BC
extended-cp     (^$)   code points from the extended range
excluded-cp     (^$)   code points that are tentatively excluded


Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in the standard notation with some extensions as noted.
⚓ - context anchor
In a regex the ⚓ signifies a placeholder for the actual code point, when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
[\p{ }] - property character set
A character set defined by reference to a value for a given Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. A set defined via "\P" indicates the set complement.
[&&,-,^] - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators (&& = intersection, - = difference, ^ = symmetric difference) or concatenated (union).
∅= - empty set
Indicates that the following set is empty because of the result of set operations, or because none of its elements are part of the repertoire defined here.An empty set that is not optional means that a rule can never match.
(^$) - empty label
The regex (^$) matches the empty label. Used as a context rule, it always fails to match, thus disallowing the affected code point in any label. By convention, it is used to exclude code points that nevertheless are listed for review or future inclusion as optional extended code points.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels, based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid   labels with leading combining marks are invalid
2 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action)


{...} - variant type set
In the "Rule/Variant Set" column the notation {...} means a set of variant types.

Table of References

[0] The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 6.3.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2013. ISBN 978-1-936213-08-5)
Any code point cited was originally encoded in Unicode Version 1.1
[100] Internetstiftelsen i Sverige (IIS), Belarusian
[600] Wikipedia, hard sign
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_sign accessed 2015-10-31
Article provides evidence for the apostrophe modifier used as an hard sign
[120] RFC5891, Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol
[130] RFC5992, Internationalized Domain Names Registration and Administration Guidelines for European Languages Using Cyrillic - section 2.3 Byelorussian
[201] Omniglot Belarusian
Code points cited form the standard set
[204] Omniglot Belarusian
Code points cited are rare or archaic
[301] Everson, Michael, The Alphabets of Europe, Belarusian
Code points cited form the standard set
[302] Everson, Michael, The Alphabets of Europe, Belarusian
Code points cited are from an extended set
[401] The Unicode Consortium, Common Locale Data Repository - CLDR Version 28 (2015-09-16) - Locale Data Summary for Belarusian [be]- //
Code points cited are from the set of Main Letters
[700] The procedure for registering domains .by and .бел
Used for core and extended set as well as for the positional rule for the Apostrophe modifier
[103] Wikipedia, hard sign
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_sign accessed 2015-10-31
A Code point cited is included in the standard set