Root Zone LGR for script: Telugu (Telu) rz-lgr-5-telugu-script-26may22-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2022-05-26
LGR Version 5 (Root Zone LGR for the Telugu Script)
Language und-Telu (Telugu Script)
Scope domain: "." (Root)
Unicode Version 11.0.0

Table of Contents


Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Telugu Script


This file contains Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Telugu script for the Root Zone. For more details on this LGR and additional background on the script, see “Proposal for a Telugu Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)” [Proposal-Telugu]. This file is one of a set of LGR files that together form an integrated LGR for the DNS Root Zone [RZ-LGR-5]. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940].


According to Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Telugu], the Telugu LGR contains 63 single code points. This LGR primarily caters to the Telugu language written using the Telugu script. Several other languages with [EGIDS] level above 4 were also considered in the analysis.

The repertoire is based on [MSR-5], which is a subset of [Unicode 11.0].

As part of the Root Zone, this LGR includes neither decimal digits nor the HYPHEN-MINUS.

Code points outside the Telugu script that are listed in this file are targets for out-of-script variants and are identified by a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. They do not form part of the repertoire.

Each code point is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, one or more other character categories, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire; see “References” below. Comments provide alternate names of some code points.


According to Section 6, “Variants”, in [Proposal-Telugu], this LGR defines cross-script variants which are “Confusing due to deviation from normally perceived character formations by larger linguistic community”. These cases are not of mere visual similarity; they can cause confusion even to a careful observer and hence have been defined as variants. There are no in-script variants defined for Telugu.

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated any other equivalent label should be blocked. There is no preference among these variants.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in the Root Zone LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

The Telugu orthography superficially resembles a series of circles and semi-circles. Most consonants carry a tick mark called ‘talakattu’. The writing system is classified as abugida type or alphasyllabary. The alphabet consists of vowels, consonants and modifiers. Each of these vowels and consonants has one or more secondary allographs.

Consonants: The Telugu consonants contain an implicit vowel /a/. More details in Section 3.5.4, “The Consonants” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Vowels and dependent vowel signs: There are fourteen vowel characters in the common inventory of which one is rarely used: U+0C0C (). It and the two obsolete vowels, U+0C60 () and U+0C61 (), are excluded from this LGR. Each vowel, except U+0C05 () has a dependent vowel sign, modifying the vowel of the consonant they follow. These signs may have different appearance depending on the size and shape of the consonant that functions as an anchor. More details in Section 3.5.1, “The vowels and vowel modifiers” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Anusvara or sunna: The Anusvara or sunna represents a homorganic nasal before the corresponding consonant and as a substitute to transcribe word final /mu/. Essentially, it substitutes a cluster of a Nasal Consonant+Halant before a consonant. More details in Section 3.5.2, “The Anusvara or sunna” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Visarga: Visarga denotes the glottal check.

Halant: A special sign is needed whenever the implicit vowel in the preceding consonant is stripped off. This symbol is known as the Halant. (Any vowel sign will also override the implicit vowel). More details in Section 3.5.1, “The vowels and vowel modifiers” in [Proposal-Telugu].

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Default Whole Label Evaluation Rules and Actions

The LGR includes the set of required default WLE rules and actions applicable to the Root Zone and defined in [MSR-5]. They are marked with ⍟. The default prohibition on leading combining marks is equivalent to ensuring that a label only starts with a consonant or vowel.

Telugu-specific Rules

These rules have been formulated so that they can be adopted for LGR specification.

The following symbols are used in the WLE rules:
C → Consonant
M → Matra (Dependent vowel signs)
V → Vowel
B → Anusvara (Bindu)
X → Visarga
H → Halant / Virama

The rules are:

More details in Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation Rules (WLE)” in [Proposal-Telugu]. The numbering of the rules given here, follows that document.

Methodology and Contributors

The Root Zone LGR for the Telugu script was developed by the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel (NBGP) the members of which have experience in linguistics and computational linguistics in a wide variety of languages written with Neo-Brahmi scripts. Under the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, there are nine scripts belonging to separate Unicode blocks. Each of these scripts has been assigned a separate LGR, with the Neo-Brahmi GP ensuring that the fundamental philosophy behind building each LGR is in sync with all other Brahmi-derived scripts. For further details on methodology and contributors, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Telugu], as well as [RZ-LGR-5-Overview].


The following general references are cited in this document:

Lewis and Simons, “EGIDS: Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale,” documented in [SIL-Ethnologue] and summarized here:
Integration Panel, “Maximal Starting Repertoire — MSR-5 Overview and Rationale”, 24 June 2021,
Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Telugu Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, 7 June 2019,
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ-LGR-5)”, 26 May 2022 (XML),
non-normative HTML presentation:
David M. Eberhard, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2021. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty fourth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version available as
[Unicode 11.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Telugu script for the Root Zone please see details in the Table of References below. Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. References [102] and above correspond to sources given in [Proposal-Telugu] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 63
Out-of-repertoire variants 34
Total entries in table 97
Number of code points
for each script
Kannada 34
Telugu 63
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. Some code points or sequences listed in the following table are not part of the repertoire itself; they document targets for out-of-repertoire variant mappings as indicated. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Part of
Variants Comment
U+0C02  ం Telugu TELUGU SIGN ANUSVARA [0], [102], [103] Anusvara follows-V-M-or-C set 1 = sunna
U+0C03  ః Telugu TELUGU SIGN VISARGA [0], [102], [103] Visarga follows-V-M-or-C set 2  
U+0C05 Telugu TELUGU LETTER A [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 3  
U+0C06 Telugu TELUGU LETTER AA [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 4  
U+0C07 Telugu TELUGU LETTER I [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 5  
U+0C08 Telugu TELUGU LETTER II [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 6  
U+0C09 Telugu TELUGU LETTER U [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0A Telugu TELUGU LETTER UU [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0B Telugu TELUGU LETTER VOCALIC R [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0E Telugu TELUGU LETTER E [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C0F Telugu TELUGU LETTER EE [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H    
U+0C10 Telugu TELUGU LETTER AI [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 7  
U+0C12 Telugu TELUGU LETTER O [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 8  
U+0C13 Telugu TELUGU LETTER OO [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 9  
U+0C14 Telugu TELUGU LETTER AU [0], [102], [103] Vowel not: follows-H set 10  
U+0C15 Telugu TELUGU LETTER KA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C16 Telugu TELUGU LETTER KHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 11  
U+0C17 Telugu TELUGU LETTER GA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 12  
U+0C18 Telugu TELUGU LETTER GHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C19 Telugu TELUGU LETTER NGA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C1A Telugu TELUGU LETTER CA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C1B Telugu TELUGU LETTER CHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C1C Telugu TELUGU LETTER JA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 13  
U+0C1D Telugu TELUGU LETTER JHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 14  
U+0C1E Telugu TELUGU LETTER NYA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 15  
U+0C1F Telugu TELUGU LETTER TTA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 16  
U+0C20 Telugu TELUGU LETTER TTHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 17  
U+0C21 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DDA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 18  
U+0C22 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DDHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 19  
U+0C23 Telugu TELUGU LETTER NNA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 20  
U+0C24 Telugu TELUGU LETTER TA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C25 Telugu TELUGU LETTER THA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 21  
U+0C26 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 22  
U+0C27 Telugu TELUGU LETTER DHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 23  
U+0C28 Telugu TELUGU LETTER NA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 24  
U+0C2A Telugu TELUGU LETTER PA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C2B Telugu TELUGU LETTER PHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C2C Telugu TELUGU LETTER BA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 25  
U+0C2D Telugu TELUGU LETTER BHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 26  
U+0C2E Telugu TELUGU LETTER MA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 27  
U+0C2F Telugu TELUGU LETTER YA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 28  
U+0C30 Telugu TELUGU LETTER RA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 29  
U+0C32 Telugu TELUGU LETTER LA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 30  
U+0C33 Telugu TELUGU LETTER LLA [0], [102], [103] Consonant   set 31  
U+0C35 Telugu TELUGU LETTER VA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C36 Telugu TELUGU LETTER SHA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C37 Telugu TELUGU LETTER SSA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C38 Telugu TELUGU LETTER SA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C39 Telugu TELUGU LETTER HA [0], [102], [103] Consonant      
U+0C3E  ా Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN AA [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C3F  ి Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN I [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C set 32  
U+0C40  ీ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN II [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C41  ు Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN U [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C set 33  
U+0C42  ూ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN UU [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C43  ృ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C set 34  
U+0C44  ౄ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C46  ె Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN E [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C47  ే Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN EE [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C48  ై Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN AI [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4A  ొ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN O [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4B  ో Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN OO [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4C  ౌ Telugu TELUGU VOWEL SIGN AU [0], [102], [103] Matra follows-C    
U+0C4D  ్ Telugu TELUGU SIGN VIRAMA [0], [102], [103] Halant follows-C   = halant
U+0C82  ಂ Kannada KANNADA SIGN ANUSVARA [0]     set 1 Not part of repertoire
U+0C83  ಃ Kannada KANNADA SIGN VISARGA [0]     set 2 Not part of repertoire
U+0C85 Kannada KANNADA LETTER A [0]     set 3 Not part of repertoire
U+0C86 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AA [0]     set 4 Not part of repertoire
U+0C87 Kannada KANNADA LETTER I [0]     set 5 Not part of repertoire
U+0C88 Kannada KANNADA LETTER II [0]     set 6 Not part of repertoire
U+0C90 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AI [0]     set 7 Not part of repertoire
U+0C92 Kannada KANNADA LETTER O [0]     set 8 Not part of repertoire
U+0C93 Kannada KANNADA LETTER OO [0]     set 9 Not part of repertoire
U+0C94 Kannada KANNADA LETTER AU [0]     set 10 Not part of repertoire
U+0C96 Kannada KANNADA LETTER KHA [0]     set 11 Not part of repertoire
U+0C97 Kannada KANNADA LETTER GA [0]     set 12 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9C Kannada KANNADA LETTER JA [0]     set 13 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9D Kannada KANNADA LETTER JHA [0]     set 14 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9E Kannada KANNADA LETTER NYA [0]     set 15 Not part of repertoire
U+0C9F Kannada KANNADA LETTER TTA [0]     set 16 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA0 Kannada KANNADA LETTER TTHA [0]     set 17 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA1 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DDA [0]     set 18 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA2 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DDHA [0]     set 19 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA3 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NNA [0]     set 20 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA5 Kannada KANNADA LETTER THA [0]     set 21 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA6 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DA [0]     set 22 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA7 Kannada KANNADA LETTER DHA [0]     set 23 Not part of repertoire
U+0CA8 Kannada KANNADA LETTER NA [0]     set 24 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAC Kannada KANNADA LETTER BA [0]     set 25 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAD Kannada KANNADA LETTER BHA [0]     set 26 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAE Kannada KANNADA LETTER MA [0]     set 27 Not part of repertoire
U+0CAF Kannada KANNADA LETTER YA [0]     set 28 Not part of repertoire
U+0CB0 Kannada KANNADA LETTER RA [0]     set 29 Not part of repertoire
U+0CB2 Kannada KANNADA LETTER LA [0]     set 30 Not part of repertoire
U+0CB3 Kannada KANNADA LETTER LLA [0]     set 31 Not part of repertoire
U+0CBF  ಿ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN I [0]     set 32 Not part of repertoire
U+0CC1  ು Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN U [0]     set 33 Not part of repertoire
U+0CC3  ೃ Kannada KANNADA VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0]     set 34 Not part of repertoire


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.
✔ - core repertoire
A check mark in the Part-of-repertoire column indicates a code point is part of the core repertoire.
✗ - out-of-repertoire
A code point shown with is not part of the repertoire. It is listed only because it is the target of an out-of-repertoire-var variant mapping.

Variant Sets

Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 34
Largest variant set 2
Ordinary Variants by Type
blocked 68
Reflexive Variants by Type
out-of-repertoire-var 34

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

A mapping where source and target are the same is reflexive. Variant sets consisting of only a single reflexive mapping are not shown as a set. Instead, the variant type of the mapping is listed in the Variants column of the Repertoire by Code Point table. Reflexive mappings that are part of a larger set are indicated with a “≡” and are counted once per entry.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and all variant sets are disjoint.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
- reflexive
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment are for a reflexive mapping where source equals target.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR. A reflexive variant type “out-of-repertoire-var” designates the target as not part of the repertoire; it is required as target for one or more variant mappings that cross repertoire boundaries. In this LGR, types for variants between out-of-repertoire code points are shown in italic while types for pure in-repertoire variants are shown in bold.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C02  ం 0C82  ಂ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C82  ಂ 0C82  ಂ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 2 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C03  ః 0C83  ಃ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C83  ಃ 0C83  ಃ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 3 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C05 0C85 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C85 0C85 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 4 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C06 0C86 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C86 0C86 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 5 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C07 0C87 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C87 0C87 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 6 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C08 0C88 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C88 0C88 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 7 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C10 0C90 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C90 0C90 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 8 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C12 0C92 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C92 0C92 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 9 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C13 0C93 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C93 0C93 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 10 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C14 0C94 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C94 0C94 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 11 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C16 0C96 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C96 0C96 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 12 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C17 0C97 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C97 0C97 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 13 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1C 0C9C blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9C 0C9C out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 14 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1D 0C9D blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9D 0C9D out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 15 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1E 0C9E blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9E 0C9E out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 16 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C1F 0C9F blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0C9F 0C9F out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 17 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C20 0CA0 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA0 0CA0 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 18 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C21 0CA1 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA1 0CA1 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 19 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C22 0CA2 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA2 0CA2 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 20 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C23 0CA3 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA3 0CA3 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 21 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C25 0CA5 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA5 0CA5 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 22 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C26 0CA6 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA6 0CA6 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 23 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C27 0CA7 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA7 0CA7 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 24 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C28 0CA8 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CA8 0CA8 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 25 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2C 0CAC blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAC 0CAC out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 26 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2D 0CAD blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAD 0CAD out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 27 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2E 0CAE blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAE 0CAE out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 28 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C2F 0CAF blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CAF 0CAF out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 29 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C30 0CB0 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CB0 0CB0 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 30 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C32 0CB2 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CB2 0CB2 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 31 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C33 0CB3 blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CB3 0CB3 out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 32 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C3F  ి 0CBF  ಿ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CBF  ಿ 0CBF  ಿ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 33 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C41  ు 0CC1  ು blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CC1  ು 0CC1  ು out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Variant Set 34 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0C43  ృ 0CC3  ೃ blocked   Cross-script homoglyph
0CC3  ೃ 0CC3  ೃ out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Number of named classes 4
Implicit (except script) 2
Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
C Tag=Consonant 34 {0C15-0C28 0C2A-0C30 0C32-0C33 0C35-0C39}   Any Telugu consonant
V Tag=Vowel 13 {0C05-0C0B 0C0E-0C10 0C12-0C14}   Any Telugu independent vowel
M Tag=Matra 13 {0C3E-0C44 0C46-0C48 0C4A-0C4C}   Any Telugu vowel sign (matra)
H Tag=Halant 1 {0C4D}   The Telugu Halant / Virama
implicit Tag=Anusvara 1 {0C02}   The character tagged as Anusvara
implicit Tag=Visarga 1 {0C03}   The character tagged as Visarga
implicit Tag=sc:Knda 34 {0C82-0C83 0C85-0C88 0C90 0C92-0C94 0C96-0C97 0C9C-0CA3 0CA5-0CA8 0CAC-0CB0 0CB2-0CB3 0CBF 0CC1 0CC3}   Any character tagged as Kannada
implicit Tag=sc:Telu 63 {0C02-0C03 0C05-0C0B 0C0E-0C10 0C12-0C28 0C2A-0C30 0C32-0C33 0C35-0C39 0C3E-0C44 0C46-0C48 0C4A-0C4D}   Any character tagged as Telugu


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 4
Used to trigger actions 1
Used as context rule (C) 3
Anchored context rules 3

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[[\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [\p{gc=Mc}]]       Default WLE rule matching labels with leading combining marks ⍟
follows-C ([:C:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 1: H must be preceded by a C; WLE 2: M must be preceded by C
follows-V-M-or-C ([:V:]|[:M:]|[:C:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 3: Visarga must be preceded by V, M or C; WLE 4: Anusvara must be preceded by V, M or C
follows-H ([:H:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 6: V cannot be preceded by H


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid   labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
5 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the "References" section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[102] Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (Ed.). 2000. Telugu bhaashaa charitra. Hyderabad: P.S. Telugu University. (first edition 1974)
[103] Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju and J P L Gwynn. 1985. A Grammar of Modern Telugu. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-561664-4