Root Zone LGR for script: Hebrew (Hebr) rz-lgr-5-hebrew-script-26may22-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2022-05-26
LGR Version 5 (Root Zone LGR for the Hebrew Script)
Language und-Hebr (Hebrew Script)
Scope domain: "." (Root)
Unicode Version 11.0.0

Table of Contents


Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Hebrew Script


This file contains a set of Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Hebrew script for the Root Zone. For more details on this LGR and additional background on the script, see “Proposal for a Hebrew Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, Version 1.3 [Proposal-Hebrew]. This file is one of a set of LGR files that together form an integrated LGR for the DNS Root Zone [RZ-LGR-5]. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940].


According to Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Hebrew], the Hebrew LGR contains 27 single code points, 5 of which are variants (final forms) of 5 others. The repertoire supports the Hebrew and Yiddish languages with restrictions appropriate for domain names. The repertoire is based on [MSR-5], which is a subset of [Unicode 11.0].

The Hebrew script is written from right to left. More details can be found in Section 3, “Background About the Script and Languages Using it” in [Proposal-Hebrew].

As part of the Root Zone, this LGR includes neither decimal digits nor the HYPHEN-MINUS.

Each code point is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code point is used, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire; see “References” below. Comments provide additional information for some code points.

Code points outside the Hebrew script that are listed in this file are targets for out-of-repertoire variants and are identified by a reflexive (identity) variant of type “out-of-repertoire-var”. They do not form part of the repertoire.


According to Section 6, “Variants”, in [Proposal-Hebrew], this LGR defines five in-script variants, which are final forms of five in-script letters.

Additional Variants: This LGR inherits additional blocked cross-script variants by integration; they may not be listed here unless they result in in-script variants. However, for consistency, the variant mappings to ASCII code points are listed in full. See the merged, Common LGR [RZ-LGR-5] for details of all applicable cross-script variants, including any not listed here; always use the Common LGR for determining cross-script collisions of labels.

Variant Disposition: All variants are of type “blocked”, making labels that differ only by these variants mutually exclusive: whichever label containing either of these variants is chosen earlier would be delegated, while any other equivalent label should be blocked.

This LGR does not define allocatable variants.

The specification of variants in the Root Zone LGR follows the guidelines in [RFC 8228].

Character Classes

The LGR does not define character classes.

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Default Whole Label Evaluation Rules and Actions

The LGR includes the set of required default WLE rules and actions applicable to the Root Zone and defined in [MSR-5]. They are marked with ⍟.

Hebrew-specific Rules

According to Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) Rules” in [Proposal-Hebrew], the LGR does not define rules specific to the Hebrew script.

Methodology and Contributors

The Root Zone LGR for the Hebrew script was developed by the Hebrew Generation Panel. For methodology and contributors, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Hebrew], as well as [RZ-LGR-5-Overview].

[IL-IDN] was consulted during the work on this LGR.

Changes from LGR-4

As result of integration with additional scripts, this LGR has been updated. This update does not change the set of labels available under this LGR. For the prior version see [RZ-LGR-4-Hebr]. For consistency across RZ-LGRs, imposed variants to ASCII code points, but not to other scripts, are now explicitly listed. Additional cross-script variants for this script exist and are defined in [RZ-LGR-5].



The following general references are cited in this document:

Integration Panel, “Maximal Starting Repertoire — MSR-5 Overview and Rationale”, 24 June 2021
Hebrew Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Hebrew Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, Version 1.3, 24 April 2019,
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
[RFC 8228]
A. Freytag, “Guidance on Designing Label Generation Rulesets (LGRs) Supporting Variant Labels”, RFC 8228, August 2017,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ-LGR-5)”, 26 May 2022 (XML),
non-normative HTML presentation:
ICANN, Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Hebrew Script (und-Hebr), Version 4, 5 November 2020 (XML)
non-normative HTML presentation:
[Unicode 11.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)
Hebrew IDN Table for .IL

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Hebrew script for the Root Zone please see details in the Table of References below. Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. Reference [101] corresponds to a source given in [Proposal-Hebrew] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 27
Out-of-repertoire variants 2
Total entries in table 29
Number of code points
for each script
Hebrew 27
Latin 2
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

For any code point or sequence for which a variant is defined, additional information is provided in the Variants column. Some code points or sequences listed in the following table are not part of the repertoire itself; they document targets for out-of-repertoire variant mappings as indicated. See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Part of
Variants Comment
U+0069 i Latin LATIN SMALL LETTER I [0] set 1 Not part of repertoire
U+006F o Latin LATIN SMALL LETTER O [0] set 2 Not part of repertoire
U+05D0 א Hebrew HEBREW LETTER ALEF [0], [101]    
U+05D1 ב Hebrew HEBREW LETTER BET [0], [101]    
U+05D2 ג Hebrew HEBREW LETTER GIMEL [0], [101]    
U+05D3 ד Hebrew HEBREW LETTER DALET [0], [101]    
U+05D4 ה Hebrew HEBREW LETTER HE [0], [101]    
U+05D5 ו Hebrew HEBREW LETTER VAV [0], [101] set 1  
U+05D6 ז Hebrew HEBREW LETTER ZAYIN [0], [101]    
U+05D7 ח Hebrew HEBREW LETTER HET [0], [101]    
U+05D8 ט Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TET [0], [101]    
U+05D9 י Hebrew HEBREW LETTER YOD [0], [101]    
U+05DA ך Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL KAF [0], [101] set 3 Final form
U+05DB כ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER KAF [0], [101] set 3 Nominal form
U+05DC ל Hebrew HEBREW LETTER LAMED [0], [101]    
U+05DD ם Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL MEM [0], [101] set 4 Final form
U+05DE מ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER MEM [0], [101] set 4 Nominal form
U+05DF ן Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL NUN [0], [101] set 5 Final form
U+05E0 נ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER NUN [0], [101] set 5 Nominal form
U+05E1 ס Hebrew HEBREW LETTER SAMEKH [0], [101] set 2  
U+05E2 ע Hebrew HEBREW LETTER AYIN [0], [101]    
U+05E3 ף Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL PE [0], [101] set 6 Final form
U+05E4 פ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER PE [0], [101] set 6 Nominal form
U+05E5 ץ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI [0], [101] set 7 Final form
U+05E6 צ Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TSADI [0], [101] set 7 Nominal form
U+05E7 ק Hebrew HEBREW LETTER QOF [0], [101]    
U+05E8 ר Hebrew HEBREW LETTER RESH [0], [101]    
U+05E9 ש Hebrew HEBREW LETTER SHIN [0], [101]    
U+05EA ת Hebrew HEBREW LETTER TAV [0], [101]    


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
Link to the variant set the code point or sequence is a member of, except where a coded point or sequence maps only to itself, in which case the type of that mapping is listed.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.
✔ - core repertoire
A check mark in the Part-of-repertoire column indicates a code point is part of the core repertoire.
✗ - out-of-repertoire
A code point shown with is not part of the repertoire. It is listed only because it is the target of an out-of-repertoire-var variant mapping.

Variant Sets

Variant Set Summary

Number of variant sets 7
Largest variant set 2
Ordinary Variants by Type
blocked 14
Reflexive Variants by Type
out-of-repertoire-var 2

The following tables list all variant sets defined in this LGR, except for singleton sets. Each table lists all variant mapping pairs of the set; one per row. Mappings are assumed to be symmetric: each row documents both forward (→) and reverse (←) mapping directions. In each table, the mappings are sorted by Source value in ascending code point order; shading is used to group mappings from the same source code point or sequence.

Where the type of both forward and reverse mappings are the same, a single value is given in the Type column; otherwise the types for forward and reverse mappings, as well as comments and references, are listed above one another. For summary counts, both forward and reverse mappings are always counted separately.

A mapping where source and target are the same is reflexive. Variant sets consisting of only a single reflexive mapping are not shown as a set. Instead, the variant type of the mapping is listed in the Variants column of the Repertoire by Code Point table. Reflexive mappings that are part of a larger set are indicated with a “≡” and are counted once per entry.

In any LGR with variant specifications that are well behaved, all members within each variant set are defined as variants of each other; the mappings in each set are symmetric and transitive; and all variant sets are disjoint.

Common Legend

By convention, the smaller of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
By convention, the larger of the two code points in a variant mapping pair.
The shape displayed for source or target depends on the fonts available to your browser.
- forward
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the mapping from source to target.
- reverse
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to the reverse mapping from target to source.
- both
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment apply to both forward and reverse mapping.
- reflexive
Indicates that Type, Ref and Comment are for a reflexive mapping where source equals target.
The type of the variant mapping, including predefined variant types such as “allocatable” and “blocked”; or any that are defined specifically for this LGR. A reflexive variant type “out-of-repertoire-var” designates the target as not part of the repertoire; it is required as target for one or more variant mappings that cross repertoire boundaries. In this LGR, types for variants between out-of-repertoire code points are shown in italic while types for pure in-repertoire variants are shown in bold.
One or more reference IDs (optional). A “/” separates references for reverse / forward mappings, if different.
A descriptive comment (optional). A “/” separates comments for reverse / forward mappings, if different.

Variant Set 1 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
0069 i 0069 i out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire
0069 i 05D5 ו blocked   Cross-script near homoglyph

Variant Set 2 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
006F o 006F o out-of-repertoire-var   Out-of-repertoire
006F o 05E1 ס blocked   Cross-script near homoglyph

Variant Set 3 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05DA ך 05DB כ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 4 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05DD ם 05DE מ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 5 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05DF ן 05E0 נ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 6 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05E3 ף 05E4 פ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Variant Set 7 — 2 Members

Source Glyph Target Glyph   Type Ref Comment
05E5 ץ 05E6 צ blocked   Final form variant / Nominal form variant

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Implict defined by script tag 2

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
implicit Tag=sc:Hebr 27 {05D0-05EA}   Any character tagged as Hebrew
implicit Tag=sc:Latn 2 {0069 006F}   Any character tagged as Latin


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 1
Used to trigger actions 1

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[∅=[[∅=\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [∅=\p{gc=Mc}]]]       Default WLE rule matching labels with leading combining marks ⍟


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
∅= - empty set
Indicates that the following set is empty because of the result of set operations, or because none of its elements is part of the repertoire defined here. A rule with a non-optional empty set never matches.
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid   labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
5 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the "References" section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[101] Omniglot, Hebrew (עברית)