Root Zone LGR for script: Gujarati (Gujr) rz-lgr-5-gujarati-script-26may22-en

This document is mechanically formatted from the above XML file for the LGR. It provides additional summary data and explanatory text. The XML file remains the sole normative specification of the LGR.

Date 2022-05-26
LGR Version 5 (Root Zone LGR for the Gujarati Script)
Language und-Gujr (Gujarati Script)
Scope domain: "." (Root)
Unicode Version 11.0.0

Table of Contents


Root Zone Label Generation Rules for the Gujarati Script


This file contains Label Generation Rules (LGR) for the Gujarati script for the Root Zone. For more details on this LGR and additional background on the script, see “Proposal for a Gujarati Script Label Generation Ruleset for the Root Zone” [Proposal-Gujarati]. This file is one of a set of LGR files that together form an integrated LGR for the DNS Root Zone [RZ-LGR-5]. The format of this file follows [RFC 7940].


According to Section 5, “Repertoire” in [Proposal-Gujarati], the Gujarati LGR contains 65 single code points. This repertoire covers multiple languages written using the Gujarati script and ranging from 1 to 4 on the [EGIDS] scale.

The repertoire is based on [MSR-5], which is a subset of [Unicode 11.0].

As part of the Root Zone, this LGR includes neither decimal digits nor the HYPHEN-MINUS.

Each code point is tagged with the script or scripts with which the code points is used, one or more other character categories, and one or more references documenting sufficient justification for inclusion in the repertoire; see “References” below.


According to Section 6, “Variants”, in [Proposal-Gujarati], there are no characters or character sequences in the Gujarati repertoire that look exactly alike. Hence no variants have been defined.

However, Gujarati has some cases of confusingly similar combinations which have been listed in Appendix A in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Character Classes

Gujarati is an alphasyllabary and the heart of the writing system is the Akshar. This is the unit which is instinctively recognized by users of the script. The writing system of Gujarati could be summed up as composed of Consonants, the Implicit Vowel Killer: Halant, Vowels, Anusvara, Candrabindu, Nukta, Visarga and Avagraha.

Consonants: Gujarati consonants contain an implicit vowel schwa /ə/. The traditional classification categorizes them according to their phonetic properties. There are 5 Varga groups (classes) and one non-Varga group. Each varga, which corresponds to a particular stop, contains five consonants classified as per their properties. The first four consonants are classified on the basis of Voicing and Aspiration and the last is the corresponding nasal. More details in Section 3.4.1, “The Consonants” of the [Proposal-Gujarati].

Halant: All consonants contain the implicit vowel (schwa). A special sign is needed to denote that this implicit vowel is stripped off. This is known as the Halant (્). The Halant thus joins two consonants and creates conjuncts, which generally combine 2 to 4 consonants. In rare cases the Halant can join up to 5 consonants. More details in Section 3.4.2, “The Implicit Vowel Killer: Halant” in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Vowels and Matras: Separate symbols exist for all Vowels, which are either pronounced independently at the beginning or attached to a consonant. To indicate the latter (other than the implicit one), a Vowel modifier (matra) is attached to the consonant. Since the consonant has a built-in schwa, there are equivalent Matras for all vowels excepting the અ (U+0A85). More details in Section 3.4.3, “Vowels” in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Anusvara: In Gujarati, the Anusvara has a dual function. On the one hand, it acts as homorganic nasal, that is, it replaces a conjunct group of a Nasal Consonant+Halant+Consonant belonging to that particular varga. On the other hand, before a non-varga consonant the anusvara represents a nasal sound. Gujarati and its dialects prefer the anusvara to the corresponding half-nasal. More details in Section 3.4.4, “The Anusvara” in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Nukta: Traditionally Gujarati does not admit the Nukta. Gujarati grammarians in their inventory of the Gujarati alphabet do not admit this diacritic. However, the Nukta is used to represent content where Perso-Arabic characters have to be transliterated. It follows specific consonants listed in set C1. More details in Section 3.4.6, “Nukta” in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Visarga and Avagraha: The Visarga is frequently used in Sanskrit and represents a sound very close to /h/, as in દુઃખ /du:kh/ sorrow, unhappiness. It is used sparingly in Gujarati with a few words borrowed from Sanskrit. The Avagraha is rarely used and excluded from the LGR. More details in Section 3.4.7, “Visarga and Avagraha” in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Whole Label Evaluation (WLE) and Context Rules

Default Whole Label Evaluation Rules and Actions

The LGR includes the set of required default WLE rules and actions applicable to the Root Zone and defined in [MSR-5]. They are marked with ⍟. The default prohibition on leading combining marks is equivalent to ensuring that a label only starts with a consonant or vowel.

Gujarati-specific Rules

These rules have been drafted to ensure that the prospective Gujarati label conforms to akshar formation norms as desired in Gujarati script. These norms are exclusively presented as context rules.

The following symbols are used in the WLE rules:
C → Consonant
M → Matra
V → Vowel
B → Anusvara
X → Visarga
H → Halant/Virama
N → Nukta
C1 → Consonants used with Nukta

The rules are:

More details in Section 7, “Whole Label Evaluation Rules (WLE)” in [Proposal-Gujarati].

Methodology and Contributors

The Root Zone LGR for the Gujarati script was developed by the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel (NBGP) the members of which have experience in linguistics and computational linguistics in a wide variety of languages written with Neo-Brahmi scripts. Under the Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, there are nine scripts belonging to separate Unicode blocks. Each of these scripts has been assigned a separate LGR, with the Neo-Brahmi GP ensuring that the fundamental philosophy behind building each LGR is in sync with all other Brahmi-derived scripts. For further details on methodology and contributors, see Sections 4 and 8 in [Proposal-Gujarati], as well as [RZ-LGR-5-Overview].


The following general references are cited in this document:

Integration Panel, “Maximal Starting Repertoire — MSR-5 Overview and Rationale”, 24 June 2021,
Lewis and Simons, “EGIDS: Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale,” documented in [SIL-Ethnologue] and summarized here:
Neo-Brahmi Generation Panel, “Proposal for a Gujarati Script Root Zone Label Generation Ruleset (LGR)”, 6 March 2019,
[RFC 7940]
Davies, K. and A. Freytag, “Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML”, RFC 7940, August 2016,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ LGR-5): Overview and Summary”, 26 May 2022,
Integration Panel, “Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ-LGR-5)”, 26 May 2022 (XML),
non-normative HTML presentation:
David M. Eberhard, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2021. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty fourth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version available as
[Unicode 11.0]
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1)

For references consulted particularly in designing the repertoire for the Gujarati script for the Root Zone please see details in the Table of References below. Reference [0] refers to the Unicode Standard version in which the corresponding code points were initially encoded. Reference [101] corresponds to a source given in [Proposal-Gujarati] justifying the inclusion of the corresponding code points. Entries in the table may have multiple source reference values.


Repertoire Summary

Number of elements in repertoire 65
Longest code point sequence 1

Repertoire by Code Point

The following table lists the repertoire by code point (or code point sequence). The data in the Script and Name column are extracted from the Unicode character database. Where a comment in the original LGR is equal to the character name, it has been suppressed.

See also the legend provided below the table.

Glyph Script Name Ref Tags Required Context Comment
U+0A82  ં Gujarati GUJARATI SIGN ANUSVARA [0], [101] Anusvara follows-V-C-N-or-M  
U+0A83  ઃ Gujarati GUJARATI SIGN VISARGA [0], [101] Visarga follows-V-C-N-or-M  
U+0A85 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER A [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A86 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER AA [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A87 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER I [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A88 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER II [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A89 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER U [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A8A Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER UU [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A8B Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER VOCALIC R [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A8C Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER VOCALIC L [6], [101] Vowel    
U+0A8D Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL CANDRA E [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A8F Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER E [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A90 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER AI [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A91 Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL CANDRA O [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A93 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER O [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A94 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER AU [0], [101] Vowel    
U+0A95 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER KA [0], [101] C1, Consonant    
U+0A96 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER KHA [0], [101] C1, Consonant    
U+0A97 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER GA [0], [101] C1, Consonant    
U+0A98 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER GHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0A99 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER NGA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0A9A Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER CA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0A9B Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER CHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0A9C Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER JA [0], [101] C1, Consonant    
U+0A9D Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER JHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0A9E Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER NYA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0A9F Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER TTA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA0 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER TTHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA1 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER DDA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA2 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER DDHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA3 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER NNA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA4 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER TA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA5 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER THA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA6 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER DA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA7 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER DHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AA8 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER NA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AAA Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER PA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AAB Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER PHA [0], [101] C1, Consonant    
U+0AAC Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER BA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AAD Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER BHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AAE Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER MA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AAF Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER YA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB0 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER RA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB2 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER LA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB3 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER LLA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB5 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER VA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB6 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER SHA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB7 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER SSA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB8 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER SA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0AB9 Gujarati GUJARATI LETTER HA [0], [101] Consonant    
U+0ABC  ઼ Gujarati GUJARATI SIGN NUKTA [0], [101] Nukta follows-specific-C  
U+0ABE  ા Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN AA [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0ABF  િ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN I [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC0  ી Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN II [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC1  ુ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN U [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC2  ૂ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN UU [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC3  ૃ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC4  ૄ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC5  ૅ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA E [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC7  ે Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN E [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC8  ૈ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN AI [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0AC9  ૉ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA O [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0ACB  ો Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN O [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0ACC  ૌ Gujarati GUJARATI VOWEL SIGN AU [0], [101] Matra follows-C-or-N  
U+0ACD  ્ Gujarati GUJARATI SIGN VIRAMA [0], [101] Halant follows-C-or-N  


Code Point
A code point or code point sequence.
The shape displayed depends on the fonts available to your browser.
Shows the script property value from the Unicode Character Database. Combining marks may have the value Inherited and code points used with more than one script may have the value Common.
Shows the character or sequence name from the Unicode Character Database.
Links to the references associated with the code point or sequence, if any.
LGR-defined tag values. Any tags matching the Unicode script property are suppressed in this view.
Required Context
Link to a rule defining the required context a code point or sequence must satisfy. If prefixed by “not:” identifies a context that must not occur.
The comment as given in the XML file. However, if the comment for this row consists only of the code point or sequence name, it is suppressed in this view. By convention, comments starting with “=” denote an alias. If present, the symbol ⍟ marks a default item shared among a set of LGRs.

Variant Sets

This LGR does not specify any variants.

Classes, Rules and Actions

Character Classes

Number of named classes 5
Implicit (except script) 3
Implict defined by script tag 1

The following table lists all named and implicit classes with their definition and a list of their members intersected with the current repertoire (for larger classes, this list is elided).

Name Definition Count Members or Ranges Ref Comment
C Tag=Consonant 34 {0A95-0AA8 0AAA-0AB0 0AB2-0AB3 0AB5-0AB9}   Any Gujarati consonant
V Tag=Vowel 14 {0A85-0A8D 0A8F-0A91 0A93-0A94}   Any Gujarati vowel letter
M Tag=Matra 13 {0ABE-0AC5 0AC7-0AC9 0ACB-0ACC}   Any Gujarati vowel sign
N Tag=Nukta 1 {0ABC}   The Gujarati Nukta
C1 Tag=C1 5 {0A95-0A97 0A9C 0AAB}   Consonants used with Gujarati Nukta
implicit Tag=Anusvara 1 {0A82}   The character tagged as Anusvara
implicit Tag=Halant 1 {0ACD}   The character tagged as Halant
implicit Tag=Visarga 1 {0A83}   The character tagged as Visarga
implicit Tag=sc:Gujr 65 {0A82-0A83 0A85-0A8D 0A8F-0A91 0A93-0AA8 0AAA-0AB0 0AB2-0AB3 0AB5-0AB9 0ABC 0ABE-0AC5 0AC7-0AC9 0ACB-0ACD}   Any character tagged as Gujarati


Members or Ranges
Lists the members of the class as code points (xxx) or as ranges of code points (xxx-yyy). Any class too numerous to list in full is elided with "...".
A named or implicit class defined by all code points that share the given tag value (ttt).
An anonymous class implicitly defined based on tag value and for which there is no named equivalent.

Whole label evaluation and context rules

Number of rules 4
Used to trigger actions 1
Used as context rule (C) 3
Anchored context rules 3

The following table lists all named rules defined in the LGR and indicates whether they are used as trigger in an action or as context (when or not-when) for a code point or variant.

Name Regular Expression Used as
Anchor Used as
Ref Comment
leading-combining-mark (start)[[\p{gc=Mn}] ∪ [\p{gc=Mc}]]       Default WLE rule matching labels with leading combining marks ⍟
follows-specific-C ([:C1:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 1: N must be preceded by a specific set of Cs
follows-C-or-N ([:C:]|[:N:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 2: Halant must be preceded by C or N; WLE 5: M: must be preceded by C or N
follows-V-C-N-or-M ([:V:]|[:C:]|[:N:]|[:M:])← ⚓︎   C   Section 7, WLE 3 and WLE 4: Visarga and Anusvara must be preceded by V, C, N or M


Used as Trigger
This rule triggers one of the actions listed below.
Used as Context
This rule defines a required or prohibited context for a code point C or variant V.
This rule has a placeholder for the code point for which it is evaluated.
Regular Expression
A regular expression equivalent to the rule, shown in a modified notation as noted:
⚓︎ - context anchor
Placeholder for the actual code point when a context is evaluated. The code point must occur at the position corresponding to the anchor. Rules containing an anchor cannot be used as triggers.
(...)← - look-behind
If present encloses required context preceding the anchor.
→(..) - look-ahead
If present encloses required context following the anchor.
(... | ...) - choice
When there is more than one alternative in a rule, the choices are separated by the alternation operator (...|...).
start or end
(start) matches the start of the label; (end) matches the end of the label.
[: :] - named or implicit character set
Reference to a named character set [:name:] or an implicit character set [:tag:]. A leading “^” before name or tag indicates the set complement.
[\p{ }] - property
Set of all characters matching a given value for a Unicode property [\p{prop=val}]. Note: uppercase “\P” defines the complement of a property set.
∪, ∩, ∖, ∆ - set operators
Sets may be combined by set operators ( = union, = intersection, = difference, = symmetric difference).
⍟ - default rule
Rules marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.


The following table lists the actions that are used to assign dispositions to labels and variant labels based on the specified conditions. The order of actions defines their precedence: the first action triggered by a label is the one defining its disposition.

# Condition Rule / Variant Set   Disposition Ref Comment
1 if label matches leading-combining-mark invalid   labels with leading combining marks are invalid ⍟
2 if at least one variant is in {out-of-repertoire-var} invalid   any variant label with a code point out of repertoire is invalid ⍟
3 if at least one variant is in {blocked} blocked   any variant label containing blocked variants is blocked ⍟
4 if each variant is in {allocatable} allocatable   variant labels with all variants allocatable are allocatable ⍟
5 if any label (catch-all)   valid   catch all (default action) ⍟


{...} - variant type set
In the “Rule/Variant Set” column, the notation {...} means a set of variant types.
⍟ - default action
Actions marked with ⍟ are included by default and may or may not be triggered by any possible label under this LGR.

Table of References

The following lists the references cited for specific code points, variants, classes, rules or actions in this LGR. For General references refer to the "References" section in the Description.

[0] The Unicode Standard 1.1
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 1.1
[6] The Unicode Standard 4.0
Any code point originally encoded in Unicode 4.0
[101] Omniglot, “Gujarati”
(Accessed on 6 Jan. 2018)