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双字符 ASCII 标签


2016 年 12 月 13 日

根据注册管理机构基本协议规范 5 第 2 节的规定,双字符 ASCII 标签应在二级域名中予以保留。经过为期两年的合作,互联网社群、ICANN 组织、政府咨询委员会 (GAC) 及各国政府、gTLD 注册管理机构和其他社群的成员共同创建了一套允许释放这些标签的框架。这两年的辛勤努力最终形成了多项授权,旨在释放上述保留的双字符标签。下面列出了指向各项授权的链接。

授权释放"非字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签

ICANN 曾发布一项一般授权,允许向 gTLD 注册管理运行机构释放所有"非字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签,该项授权自 2014 年 12 月 1 日起生效。对于那些试图注册和激活这些双字符 ASCII 标签的新通用顶级域 (NgTLD) 注册管理运行机构而言,无需执行进一步的操作。此项授权需遵循《注册管理机构协议》中适用于各个 TLD 的所有其他条款。

查阅授权释放"非字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签 [PDF, 142 KB]

授权释放"字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签

ICANN 发布了一项一般授权,允许向 ICANN 此前未授权的 gTLD 注册管理运行机构释放所有"字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签,而且依据《注册管理机构协议》规范 5 第 6 节的规定,不要求另外保留这些标签,该授权自 2016 年 12 月 13 日起生效。此项授权需 1) 实施附录 A 中包括的"对'字母/字母'型双字符 ASCII 标签采取措施,以避免与相应国家/地区代码出现混淆";并且 2) 遵循《注册管理机构协议》的所有其他条款。

查阅授权释放"字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签 [PDF, 378 KB]

关于释放"字母/字母"型双字符 ASCII 标签的各项授权

早在 2016 年 12 月 13 日之前,ICANN 实施了一个中间流程,以此向 gTLD 提出的有关释放"字母/字母"型双字符标签的各项申请进行授权。自从此项授权在 2016 年 12 月 13 日生效后,这个中间流程便停用了。

如需了解已停用的"释放双字符 ASCII 标签的授权流程"的历史信息,请点击此处

ICANN 组织关于在二级域名中释放双字符标签的发展过程简介文档

2019 年 1 月 22 日,ICANN 组织发布了两份关于在二级域名中释放双字符标签的程序的文档:

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."