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权利保护机制 (RPM) 和争议解决程序 (DRP)

ICANN 社群建立了多个权利保护机制和争议解决程序(如下所示)来支持可信市场。已经针对新通用顶级域项目实施了这些机制和程序,以缓解权利持有人在扩展新通用顶级域命名空间时可能会遇到的潜在风险,并帮助提高注册服务提供商启动新通用顶级域的效率。

  • 公益承诺争议解决流程 (PICDRP) - PICDRP 用来解决有关注册管理机构可能没有遵守其《注册管理机构协议》规范 11 中的公益承诺的投诉。
  • 注册限制争议解决流程 (RRDRP) - RRDRP 专门用于解决基于社群的新通用顶级域注册管理运行机构没有遵守其《注册管理机构协议》中规定的注册限制的情况。
  • 商标信息交换中心 (TMCH) – TMCH 是一个存储库,用来存放支持新通用顶级域注册管理机构提供的权利保护服务的商标数据。建立 TMCH 的目的是为了帮助提供优先注册阶段服务和商标通知服务。
  • 商标信息交换中心 (TMCH) 的要求 - TMCH 的要求是根据 ICANN 组织与注册管理运行机构之间签署的《注册管理机构协议》规范 7 第 1 部分中的规定,实施与商标信息交换中心有关的权利保护机制。这些商标保护机制是由 ICANN 社群为加入新通用顶级域项目而建立的。
  • 商标授权后争议解决程序 (PDDRP) - PDDRP 广泛用于解决商标授权后争议解决诉讼,以及注册管理运行机构在一级或二级新通用顶级域中涉嫌商标侵权的情况。
  • 统一快速中止程序 (URS) - URS 是一项权利保护机制,通过提供低成本的快速通道来解决权利持有人遇到的非常明确的侵权案件,对现有的统一域名争议解决政策 (UDRP) 进行了有效补充。
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."