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2007 年4 月20 日在英国利物浦,由联合国亚洲及太平洋经济和社会委员会合作举办的第


虽然信息和通信技术(ICT )使得世界各地的人与人之间的互动达到前所未有的方便快捷,但是,与此同时也某种程度上降低了人与人之间交流的质量。




• 尊重网上沟通

• 认真倾听他人以了解他们的观点

• 对他们的言辞和行动承担责任

• 保持建设性批评

• 尊重多样性和宽容分歧

我们崇尚充分和公开的沟通,我们也认识到在线环境下是一种独特的表达方式。我们支持言论自由,并反对过分抑制。这些原则不在于强调可以表述什么想法,而在于强调通讯沟通时的基调。 “

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."