Skip to main content

Welcome to the new ICANN.org! Learn more, and send us your feedback. Dismiss

Resources

2002 Correspondence

Correspondence Affiliation Date Issue
Memorandum from At-Large Organizing Committee to ICANN Board At-Large Organizing Committee 9 December 2002 Candidates for the Interim At-Large Advisory Committee
Letter from Nancy J. Victory to M. Stuart Lynn U.S. Department of Commerce 26 November 2002 approval of PIR as successor .org operator
Letter from Cassidy Sehgal to Louis Touton RegistryPro, Inc. 15 November 2002 RegistryPro proposal to amend .pro Registry Agreement
Letter from Timothy Gelman to Louis Touton RegistryPro, Inc. 15 November 2002 RegistryPro proposal to amend .pro Registry Agreement
Message from .pro Advisory Board to Louis Touton RegistryPro, Inc. 15 November 2002 RegistryPro proposal to amend .pro Registry Agreement
Letter from J. Beckwith Burr to Louis Touton Global Name Registry 9 November 2002 GNR proposal to amend .name Registry Agreement
Letter from Keven E. Brannon to Stuart Lynn Dotster, Inc. 30 October 2002
Message from Roger Cochetti to Louis Touton GNSO gTLD Registries Constituency 24 October 2002 GNR proposal to amend .name Registry Agreement
Letter from Steven J. Metalitz to Vint Cerf GNSO Intellectual Property Interests Constituency 24 October 2002 GNR proposal to amend .name Registry Agreement
Message from Ken Stubbs to Louis Touton DNSO Registrars Constituency 21 October 2002 GNR proposal to amend .name Registry Agreement
Letter from Philip L. Sbarbaro to Joe Sims VeriSign 16 October 2002 VGRS Wait-Listing Service
Message from Vint Cerf to Names Council DNSO Names Council 20 September 2002 IANA
Letter from W.G. Champion Mitchell to Louis Touton VeriSign 17 September 2002 NSI Registrar breach of Whois-accuracy obligations
Letter from Louis Touton to W.G. Champion Mitchell VeriSign 12 September 2002 NSI Registrar breach of Whois-accuracy obligations
Letter from W.G. Champion Mitchell to Louis Touton VeriSign 11 September 2002 NSI Registrar breach of Whois-accuracy obligations
Letter from Keven E. Brannon to Stuart Lynn Dotster 9 September 2002
Letter from Louis Touton to Bruce Beckwith VeriSign 3 September 2002 NSI Registrar breach of Whois-accuracy obligations
Letter from Nancy J. Victory to M. Stuart Lynn U.S. Department of Commerce 25 July 2002 VGRS annual neutrality audit
Letter from M. Stuart Lynn to Nancy J. Victory U.S. Department of Commerce 19 July 2002 ICANN Reform
Letter from Nancy J. Victory to M. Stuart Lynn U.S. Department of Commerce 11 July 2002 ICANN Reform
Letter from Nancy J. Victory to M. Stuart Lynn U.S. Department of Commerce 10 July 2002 USDOC consideration of MOU renewal
Letter from M. Stuart Lynn to Dr. Paul Twomey Governmental Advisory Committee 5 July 2002 ICANN Evolution and Reform
Testimony of M. Stuart Lynn to Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation 12 June 2002
Message from Kofi Annan to ICANN United Nations 14 March 2002

 

2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."