Skip to main content

Resolutions | Board Action by Unanimous Consent


October 29, 1999

Pursuant to the provisions of Section 5211(b) of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law, as amended, the undersigned, being all of the duly elected directors of Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation (the "Company"), hereby adopt, by this written consent in lieu of a meeting (this "Written Consent"), the following resolutions with the same force and effect as if they had been unanimously adopted at a duly convened meeting of the Board of Directors of the Company (the "Board").

Amendment and Restatement of Bylaws

RESOLVED [99.116] that the bylaws of the Company be and the same hereby are, amended and restated in their entirety as set forth in the form of bylaws of the Company attached hereto as Exhibit A (the "Amended and Restated Bylaws"), and the Amended and Restated Bylaws are hereby approved and adopted as the bylaws for the regulation of the business and affairs of the Company; and

RESOLVED FURTHER [99.117] that this Written Consent may be executed in one or more counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but all of which together, when filed in the corporate records of the Company, shall be deemed one and the same instrument.

This Written Consent shall be effective as of October 29, 1999 when it (or one or more counterparts hereof) has been executed by all of the undersigned directors of the Company.

Executed by Esther Dyson, Geraldine Capdeboscq, George Conrades, Greg Crew, Frank Fitzsimmons, Hans Kraaijenbrink, Jun Murai, Michael Roberts, Eugenio Triana, and Linda S. Wilson.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."