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Alexandra Kulikova

Head of Global Stakeholder Engagement, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Russian Federation

Forum Profile


Alexandra joined ICANN Staff in November 2015 and currently serves the organization as the Head of Global Stakeholder Engagement, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

As of September 2017 as Head of the region for GSE, she leads the development and implementation of the ICANN GSE regional projects in the region engaging with various stakeholder groups on a variety of topics regarding the role of ICANN in regional and global internet governance, global DNS security, stability and resiliency issues and DNS industry development.

Alexandra came to ICANN with a strong background in internet governance and cybersecurity having led the Global Internet Governance and International Information Security research programme at PIR Center, a Moscow-based non-governmental think-tank focusing on global security issues.

Alexandra holds an MSc (Hons) in Media and Communication Governance from London School of Economics and Political Science in the UK and an undergraduate degree in linguistics and multicultural communication from Moscow State Linguistic University in Russia.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."