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Kathryn Carver

VP for Government Engagement - Global Coordination

United States of America

Forum Profile

Biography

Mandy Carver (Kathryn A. Carver) joined ICANN as the Deputy General Manager for Global Partnerships in November 2006. Her specialties are multi-stakeholder decision making and conflict resolution. At ICANN, her responsibilities include identifying and assessing the policy issues emerging from local internet conditions as well as leading, managing and mentoring a team of regional liaisons that collaborate with local constituents and represent ICANN's global strategy. Ms. Carver also staffs the international committees that resolve the global partnership issues brought to ICANN through its participatory processes.

Mandy Carver, a health and human rights lawyer, was formerly the Executive Director of The Concord Project, an international research and action project whose mission is to strengthen cross-community organizations. Prior to joining The Concord Project, Mandy Carver was a Senior Consultant at John Snow, Inc, a public health research, management, and consulting firm. Earlier she was the Director of the Office of Patient Advocacy of the National Marrow Donor Program.

Mandy Carver received her AB from Princeton University. She received her JD from the University of Minnesota where she won the William O. Douglas Award for Constitutional Scholarship and was on the editorial board of Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice. She also received her MPH in Epidemiology from the University of Minnesota , where she held an Adolescent Health Program post-doctoral fellowship.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."