Skip to main content

Explore profiles

Profile image for Brian Aitchison

Brian Aitchison

United States

Lead Researcher, GDD, Operations and Policy Research

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Sawsan Aldawodi

Sawsan Aldawodi

United States

Language Expert - Head Interpreter

Civil SocietyDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Carlos Alvarez

Carlos Alvarez

United States

SSR Technical Engagement Director

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Fiona Aw

Fiona Aw

Singapore

Global Communications Coordinator

Profile image for Duncan Burns

Duncan Burns

United States

SVP, Global Communications & Managing Director - Washington D.C. Office

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Kathryn Carver

Kathryn Carver

United States

VP for Government Engagement - Global Coordination

Profile image for Joseph Catapano

Joseph Catapano

United States

Stakeholder Engagement Manager, North America

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Dennis Chang

Dennis Chang

United States

GDD Services & Engagement Program Director

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for David Conrad

David Conrad

United States

SVP & Chief Technology Officer

Developing WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Albert Daniels

Albert Daniels

Saint Lucia

Stakeholder Engagement Sr Manager -The Caribbean

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Teresa Elias

Teresa Elias

United States

Office of the General Counsel Sr. Manager

Developing WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Jeannie Ellers

Jeannie Ellers

United States

Stakeholder Engagement Measurement & Planning Sr. Manager

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Yvette Guigneaux

Yvette Guigneaux

United States

Projects & Operations Assistant, MSSI

Civil SocietyDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Daniel E. Halloran

Daniel E. Halloran

ICANN Chief Data Protection Officer and Deputy General Counsel

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Jamie Hedlund

Jamie Hedlund

SVP, Contractual Compliance & Consumer Safeguards

Profile image for Nigel Hickson

Nigel Hickson

Switzerland

VP, IGO Engagement

GovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Andee Hill

Andee Hill

United States

Registrar Services & Engagement Programs Director

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Lars Hoffmann

Lars Hoffmann

United States

Director, MSSI Organizational Effectiveness Reviews

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Robert Hoggarth

Robert Hoggarth

United States

VP, Policy Development & Community Services

Profile image for  Anne-Rachel Inne

Anne-Rachel Inne

United States

VP, Government Engagement

Profile image for Tarek Kamel

Tarek Kamel

Sr Advisor to President & SVP, Government and IGO Engagement

Profile image for Melissa King

Melissa King

United States

VP, Board Operations

Profile image for Jasmine Lim

Jasmine Lim

Singapore

Contractual Compliance Specialist

Profile image for Jia Rong Low

Jia Rong Low

Vice President, Stakeholder Engagement & Managing Director - Asia Pacific

Profile image for Veni Markovski

Veni Markovski

United States

Vice-President, UN Engagement - New York

Civil SocietyDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for David Olive

David Olive

United States

SVP, Policy Development Support

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Erika Randall

Erika Randall

Associate General Counsel

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."