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Profile image for Yazid Akanho

Yazid Akanho


Technical Engagement Specialist


Profile image for Fabien Betremieux

Fabien Betremieux


GAC Advice and Policy Support Senior Advisor

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John Crain

Chief Security, Stability & Resiliency Office

Developing WorldTechnology

Profile image for Mauricio Vergara Ereche

Mauricio Vergara Ereche

United States of America

Lead DNS Engineer

Civil SocietyTechnology

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Benjamin Farine


Lead DNS Engineer

Profile image for Gustavo Lozano Ibarra

Gustavo Lozano Ibarra

Technical Services Director

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Patrick L. Jones

United States of America

Senior Director, Global Stakeholder Engagement

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Darren Kara

United States of America

Manager, Network & DNS Infrastructure

Profile image for Edward Lewis

Edward Lewis

United States of America

Sr. Technologist

Profile image for Antonietta Mangiacotti

Antonietta Mangiacotti

Policy Research Manager

Profile image for Paul Muchene

Paul Muchene


Technical Engagement Specialist

Profile image for David Olive

David Olive

United States of America

SVP, Policy Development Support

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceGovernmentTechnology

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David Soltero

United States of America

Sr. Lead Infrastructure Engineer- Architecture

Profile image for Samaneh Tajalizadehkhoob

Samaneh Tajalizadehkhoob


Lead Security, Stability, & Resiliency Specialist

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."