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  • Enhancing Transparency in Contractual Compliance Reporting

    In Jamie Hedlund’s blog, Six weeks in Contractual Compliance and Consumer Safeguards, he briefed the community on three department initiatives (facilitate community-wide consumer safeguard discussion; boost DNS abuse mitigation efforts; and enhance transparency around...
  • The Digital Economy: The New Oil of the Middle East

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    In 2016, following community recommendations, ICANN commissioned the Domain Name System (DNS) market study in the Middle East region. The study found that domain names do not exist in a vacuum – rather they are part of an Internet ecosystem and cannot thrive without basic...
  • Customer Standing Committee Charter Review

    Just over a year ago, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the U.S. Government's Department of Commerce transferred the NTIA's stewardship of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions to the global Internet community. The...
  • Do You Have a Domain Name? Here's What You Need to Know.

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    Part II: Transferring Your Domain Name As a registered name holder of a domain name you have certain rights, including the right to transfer your domain name to another registrar or registrant. There are a couple of important rules you need to know if you want to transfer...
  • Accountability Indicators Feedback - 25 August to 30 September 2017

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    A report summarizing the feedback received and describing the next steps Introduction We launched the Accountability Indicators in August 2017. This is another way for the organization to demonstrate accountability, and helps you see how we are making progress against our...
  • ICANN61 Still Slated for Puerto Rico

    It took less than 24 hours—one day—for Hurricane Maria to devastate Puerto Rico and many of its neighbors, but it will take years for them to recover. It is an understatement to say that for everyone affected, the journey back to their once normal lives will be long,...
  • The Story Behind ICANN’s Decision to Delay the KSK Rollover

    Most are now aware of ICANN's announced decision to postpone the changing of the cryptographic key that helps protect the Domain Name System (DNS). This change or "roll" was originally scheduled for 11 October. I would like to provide some additional details about what...
  • What's New with Reviews?

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    Reviews are one of several important ICANN accountability mechanisms. Find the latest news, updates, and opportunities to participate in the various ICANN reviews below. Specific Reviews are led by community review teams to assess the performance of the ICANN organization...
  • Chairman’s Blog: The Montevideo Workshop Wrap-Up

    The ICANN Board just finished our workshop in beautiful Montevideo, Uruguay and I wanted to share some updates with you. It was good to be joined by our incoming Board members León Sanchez, Matthew Shears, Avri Doria and Sarah Deutsch, who will be seated to the Board in...
  • Anne-Rachel Inne to Leave ICANN on 30 September

    Along with ICANN's management team, I'd like to share the news that Anne-RachelInne, VP for Government Engagement, is leavingICANNeffective 30 September 2017. Anne-Rachelhas been withICANN in a variety of roles for 11 years, excluding her briefleave from 2012 to July...
  • LACNIC: Celebrating 15 Years of Regional Excellence

    We're currently in Montevideo, Uruguay, for LACNIC28 and the last intercessional ICANN Board Workshop of the year. We can't speak about being at the LACNIC meeting without first conveying our best wishes to our friends and colleagues in the Caribbean and in Mexico who...
  • Chairman’s Blog: Previewing the Montevideo Workshop

    On a regular basis, both in-between ICANN meetings and at the beginning of each ICANN Meeting, the ICANN Board meets in a workshop format. During these workshops, the Board and ICANN’s management team come together for in-depth consideration of important and timely ICANN...
  • Data Protection and Privacy: Progress Update and Next Steps

    In this blog, we want to provide you with an update on our data protection and privacy work as it relates to the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). In late July, we published the first draft of a matrix of user stories related to registrants' data...
  • Join a Contractual Compliance & Consumer Safeguards Conversation

    Over the past few years there has been an increase in reports of DNS abuse, including malware, phishing and botnets. We have also seen the advent of voluntary agreements between registries and content producers aimed at reducing massive online copyright infringement. In...
  • Achieving the Right Formula for Youth Engagement

    As the Internet continues to expand, it’s becoming more and more important that we involve younger generations, who are digital natives, in Internet governance discussions. They are the future leaders, and we want to encourage them to take an active role in shaping...
  • Do You Have a Domain Name? Here's What You Need to Know (Part 1)

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    Part 1: Why You Need to Keep Your Contact Information Up-to-Date Have you received an email reminder from your registrar sometime in the past year, reminding you to review and update your contact information? You should have. This reminder email may be long and contain a...
  • Improvements to the Quarterly Stakeholder Updates

    We're evolving the Quarterly Stakeholder Updates to serve your needs better. Despite the changes, you will still receive the core information in a transparent and accountable way, and will still be able to ask the ICANN organization questions. After reviewing the data...
  • Celebrating Four Years of Supporting the Asia Pacific Region

    Dear friends and colleagues, Another year has gone by and the APAC regional office is now 4 years old. Please join me and the APAC team as we celebrate our 4th anniversary with a special report. This not only marks 4 years of the ICANN Organization’s presence in the APAC...
  • Introducing the New Accountability Indicators

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    Have you ever wondered how many events ICANN participates in by region and how many people we engage with? Or what is the state of ICANN's financials? Or how much is being spent on travel and meetings? Now you can find all of these answers and more on the beta version of...
  • ICANN Middle East – One Year in Review

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    In July 2016, a community-led working group of over 50 members and observers began working on a three-year regional Middle East engagement strategy, along with a one-year implementation plan. Over the past year, ICANN has made significant progress on this strategy. The...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."