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Blog

  • Highlighting the Differences in Domains

    Every once in a while it is interesting to take a closer look at how top-level domains are used to differentiate things from one another. A new ad campaign by TIAA-CREF, a large non-profit US financial services organization, is playing off its status as a “.org”. The...
  • Russian Internet conference next month

    In a little over a month (September 10-12), IT professionals from around the world will meet at the Vatutinki residence near Moscow, Russia. Among them will be, from ICANN, Theresa Swinehart, Tina Dam and Veni Markovski, as well as Fred Baker and Patrik Faltstrom...
  • New ICANN monthly magazine

    One of the problems with ICANN has always been finding out what exactly is going on. Those involved in particular discussions on particular issues have always been kept abreast, mostly because they are on the mailing lists or the conference calls where matters are...
  • Stats on July’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, July 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was one person with...
  • ICANN Starts Consultation on How to Protect Registrants

    ICANN has opened a consultation on the Registrar Accreditation Agreement. See the announcement from Friday, 27 July 2007, and RAA Topics page at http://www.icann.org/topics/raa/. All the information you need has also been compiled on ICANN’s public comment webpage here....
  • A revamp of ICANN’s public comment process

    A vital part of ICANN’s processes is the opportunity for there to be public comment on each substantial piece of work before it is put forward for final approval. However, the organisation has been criticised in the past for not flagging these public comment periods...
  • NARALO signing pictures

    The North American RALO was signed at the San Juan meeting. It marked the end of the Interim ALAC since the final region of the world had formed an MoU with ICANN, and the formation of a new, more representative, and hopefully more cohesive, Advisory Committee that will...
  • Stats on June’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, June 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was no one with two...
  • ePetitions, eDemocracy and ICANN

    I had lunch on Friday in London with Ross Ferguson from Hansard’s eDemocracy unit. Ross is doing a very interesting thing: observing the impact and advantages (and disadvantages) of the UK government using new Internet tools in order to promote “eDemocracy”. He and his...
  • Try out our new IANA site

    One thing that has been obvious for quite some time is the IANA web site needed some attention. Somewhat of a relic of an earlier era of the Internet, the web site had grown into a pile of information that is poorly organised and hard to navigate. Last year, we shared...
  • Translation policy for ICANN

    As part of a number of draft management operating principle documents at its San Juan meeting in June 2007, ICANN produced a translation framework. That document outlined the principles and broad framework for translating documents within the ICANN system, but did not go...
  • ICANN meeting daily updates

    One of the problems with ICANN meetings is that so much goes on that it is impossible for people to keep track of it all. I am especially aware of this as (in my role as general manager of public participation) I have been trying to developed a way to let people know...
  • RALO formation update

    The NARALO has agreed its MoU, and this will be signed on Thursday. The RALO has voted for its two ALAC members, and they are Beau Brendler from the USA (1 year term) and Robert Guerra from Canada (2 year term). They will take up their positions at the end of the MoU...
  • RegisterFly update: 24 June 2007

    The last update on the RegisterFly situation covered the deal struck between RegisterFly and GoDaddy that saw all the registrar’s domains transferred over to GoDaddy. That deal has seen the vast majority of domain issues sorted out. However, as far as ICANN is concerned,...
  • ICANN Fellows, Welcome

    ICANN commenced a fellowships program trial for its 29th meeting taking place in San Juan on June 25-20, 2007. 34 fellows are participating in the San Juan meeting. I was sitting in a ccTLD workshop yesterday organized for the Caribbean ccTLDs, and I was rally impressed...
  • Protection of Registrants Workshop – input welcomed

    A Protection of Registrants’ Workshop will be held tomorrow, Monday 25 June 2007, at ICANN’s meeting in Puerto Rico at 1pm (EST) that will cover changes in the registrar market, a significant part of which will be suggested alterations to the Registrar Accreditation...
  • Welcome to San Juan

    ICANN is hosting its 29th International Public Meeting in San Juan, Puerto Rico. While the official start of the meeting is Monday, meetings are currently underway on a number of topics. Check the San Juan meeting website at http://sanjuan2007.icann.org/ to follow...
  • IPv6, the iPod and the Earth

    We’ve been looking for an analogy for two days to explain the size of the IPv6 pool compared to IPv4, but IPv6 space is so huge none of the comparisons are immediately comprehensible. See below for Jacob’s light years attempt. However Kim Davies reckons he has come upon...
  • How far could you go on IPv6?

    If there are: 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IPv6 addresses and a light year is 9,460,730,472,580.8 km and 1 IPv6 address = 1 km how far could you travel on IPv6 addresses? Could we get to Proxima Centauri? It’s about 4.22 light-years away. How about...
  • Accountability and transparency – the way forward

    In March, ICANN released a report by the One World Trust (OWT) into ICANN that came up with 39 recommendations to further improve standards of accountability and transparency within the organisation. That report is also being used as input into the development of...
  • Stats on May’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, May 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was one person with two...
  • We want your comments on the Registry Failure Report

    ICANN has posted a detailed report titled Building Towards a Comprehensive Registry Failover Plan. This ICANN’s first study of registry failure, and represents a significant document with information for existing registries, future registries, registrars and registrants....
  • ICANN invited to participate at the Russian Economic Forum

    ICANN has been invited to participate in the XIth St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. Both myself (Veni Markovski) and CEO and President Paul Twomey will be attending. Paul will speak at the Round Table entitled: “Knowledge based economy” where the moderator is...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."