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  • Reaching out to university students

    In advance of the ICANN Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, ICANN is conducting a number of events with area universities. Yesterday two sessions were conducted with the University of Southern California, a morning session with USC’s Information Sciences Institute and an...
  • A guide to ICANN’s intersessional work

    Yesterday, we published a “San Juan to Los Angeles” newsletter to all those subscribed to ICANN meetings updates (you can subscribe here), covering ICANN “intersessional” work i.e. the flow of work between main ICANN meetings – in this case between San Juan in June, and...
  • Stats on August’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, August 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was no individuals...
  • Things you didn’t realize were on the ICANN site: Part 1

    One of the consistent gripes about ICANN is that we don’t provide sufficient information (which, incidentally is why there is an online survey for people right here to help us understand what you are looking for). This usually prompts the response from ICANN that in fact...
  • The lives of country code domains

    ICANN made a little piece of history in three countries a few days ago when it approved the delegation of the .KP domain for North Korea, the .RS domain for Serbia, and the .ME domain for Montenegro. For the former it marks a further step in their efforts to connect their...
  • What do you want to know about ICANN? Online survey

    One of ICANN’s most important jobs is to provide those interested in its processes with the information they need to interact fully. It is just as important that people are aware of what issues are currently being discussed within the organisation, what the outcome of...
  • September magazine is out

    The September issue of the ICANN magazine is out. This month it includes interviews with ALAC chair Jacqueline Morris, as well as CEO Paul Twomey. Recent Board meeting are covered, and the policy issues reviewed are: IDNs, Registry and Registrar contracts, and IPv6. Also,...
  • To ICANN or not to Icann

    It’s irritated me for ages that whenever you see a reference to ICANN in the British press, it’s always called ‘Icann’. This gets right up my nose, though I can’t quite put my finger on why. The practice of denying us our God-given capital letters just seems a bit cheeky....
  • ICANN Request for Information on Domain Tasting

    The GNSO is currently conducting fact-finding on domain tasting. ICANN posted a Request for Information on 10 August, and information may be submitted through 15 September 2007. Comments may be submitted to rfi-domaintasting@icann.org and viewed at...
  • A blast from the past on new gTLDs

    As anyone reading this will hopefully be aware, starting next year there will be a more consistent and relaxed mechanism for adding new gTLDs to the Internet. Which leads to an inevitable and interesting question: what new generic top-level domains would be useful and/or...
  • ICANN Blog Maintenance

    The ICANN Blog will undergo maintenance on Sunday, 26 August 2007, from 0200 to 0400 UTC. Pages will be unavailable for viewing or posting of comments during that downtime. Thank you.
  • Steve Goldstein and Susan Crawford live

    Two members of the Board, Steve Goldstein and Susan Crawford, addressed the ICANN fellows during the San Juan meeting. They gave interesting talks about the history of the net and the history of ICANN. You can listen to their conferences here: Steve Goldstein’s conference...
  • Highlighting the Differences in Domains

    Every once in a while it is interesting to take a closer look at how top-level domains are used to differentiate things from one another. A new ad campaign by TIAA-CREF, a large non-profit US financial services organization, is playing off its status as a “.org”. The...
  • Russian Internet conference next month

    In a little over a month (September 10-12), IT professionals from around the world will meet at the Vatutinki residence near Moscow, Russia. Among them will be, from ICANN, Theresa Swinehart, Tina Dam and Veni Markovski, as well as Fred Baker and Patrik Faltstrom...
  • New ICANN monthly magazine

    One of the problems with ICANN has always been finding out what exactly is going on. Those involved in particular discussions on particular issues have always been kept abreast, mostly because they are on the mailing lists or the conference calls where matters are...
  • Stats on July’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, July 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was one person with...
  • ICANN Starts Consultation on How to Protect Registrants

    ICANN has opened a consultation on the Registrar Accreditation Agreement. See the announcement from Friday, 27 July 2007, and RAA Topics page at http://www.icann.org/topics/raa/. All the information you need has also been compiled on ICANN’s public comment webpage here....
  • A revamp of ICANN’s public comment process

    A vital part of ICANN’s processes is the opportunity for there to be public comment on each substantial piece of work before it is put forward for final approval. However, the organisation has been criticised in the past for not flagging these public comment periods...
  • NARALO signing pictures

    The North American RALO was signed at the San Juan meeting. It marked the end of the Interim ALAC since the final region of the world had formed an MoU with ICANN, and the formation of a new, more representative, and hopefully more cohesive, Advisory Committee that will...
  • Stats on June’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, June 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was no one with two...
  • ePetitions, eDemocracy and ICANN

    I had lunch on Friday in London with Ross Ferguson from Hansard’s eDemocracy unit. Ross is doing a very interesting thing: observing the impact and advantages (and disadvantages) of the UK government using new Internet tools in order to promote “eDemocracy”. He and his...
  • Try out our new IANA site

    One thing that has been obvious for quite some time is the IANA web site needed some attention. Somewhat of a relic of an earlier era of the Internet, the web site had grown into a pile of information that is poorly organised and hard to navigate. Last year, we shared...
  • Translation policy for ICANN

    As part of a number of draft management operating principle documents at its San Juan meeting in June 2007, ICANN produced a translation framework. That document outlined the principles and broad framework for translating documents within the ICANN system, but did not go...
  • ICANN meeting daily updates

    One of the problems with ICANN meetings is that so much goes on that it is impossible for people to keep track of it all. I am especially aware of this as (in my role as general manager of public participation) I have been trying to developed a way to let people know...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."