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  • Technical Management Function for IN-ADDR.ARPA

    In December we spoke of the planned changes to the IPv4 Reverse DNS Infrastructure where the zone maintenance of the IN-ADDR.ARPA zone would transition to ICANN and be managed concurrently with the central assignment of address space to the RIRs. ICANN would like to...
  • Update on ICANN Board/GAC Consultation on New gTLDs

    We wanted to provide some additional information on the work being carried out by ICANN’s Board of Directors and the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) to prepare for their upcoming meeting in Brussels on the new gTLD program. As detailed in our recent announcements...
  • Building on Accountability & Transparency at ICANN

    In order for ICANN’s international, bottom-up, multi-stakeholder model to operate effectively, frameworks and mechanisms for accountability and transparency were built into ICANN and have been improved upon over time. The Board of Directors, community and staff have an...
  • Update on ICANN Board/GAC Consultation on New gTLDS

    There is a considerable amount of interest in the upcoming Board/GAC consultation on new gTLDs to be held in Brussels on 28 February and 1 March 2011. This message is intended as an update to information we have already posted on the consultation. As I’m sure you will all...
  • IPv6 – Enabling the Internet’s Future Growth

    In 1995, on behalf of the IAB and IANA, I wrote a document called “Unique Addresses are Good” (RFC 1814). The Internet community had begun to worry about the depletion of the IPv4 address space at that time and the IAB and IANA started taking steps to slow the...
  • Status Report on the DNS in Egypt

    Along with the entire global Internet community, ICANN is watching the events unfolding in Egypt with great concern for the safety of the people of Egypt and for their ability to use the Internet. On January 27, most Internet connectivity to Egypt was shut down,...
  • Share Your Views on Improving ICANN Accountability and Transparency

    While the ICANN community was ringing in a new year on 31 December, the community review team charged with evaluating ICANN’s accountability and transparency was filing their final report. I wanted to make sure ICANN’s stakeholders and participants were aware that the...
  • Update on DNS Security & Stability Analysis Working Group

    During the ICANN meeting in Cartagena, Colombia, the At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC), Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO), Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO), and Number Resource Organization (NRO) adopted the charter for a joint DNS Security...
  • Bill Clinton and the ICANN Silicon Valley Meeting

    A few blogs and a swarm of tweets have announced that former President Bill Clinton will speak at ICANN’s Silicon Valley-San Francisco public meeting in March. Some are asking why ICANN hasn’t announced this yet. While it’s true that we have invited and he has accepted,...
  • Planned Changes to IPv4 Reverse DNS Infrastructure

    The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) and ICANN are together planning changes to the infrastructure which supports the IPv4 Reverse DNS — that is, the part of the DNS which provides the ability to look up an IPv4 address and convert it to a name. The IPv4...
  • 2011 Nominating Committee Opens Up

    ICANN’s 2011 Nominating Committee (NomCom) has taken the words of the ATRT to heart, and will communicate more often and openly with the global Internet community. As we move through our nine-month recruitment and selection process, this year’s NomCom will give regular...
  • ICANN Board Resolutions Wiki Launched

    Wondering how many resolutions ICANN’s Board of Directors approved on new gTLDs before this year? Researching historic ICANN Board actions on IPv6? Looking for the status of IDN ccTLD fast-track resolution implementation? Have we got a new tool for you! As part of the...
  • Internet Policy Expert Named as Latin American Representative

    I’m proud to announce that Rodrigo de la Parra, the Director General of Prospective Regulation of Mexico’s Federal Commission of Telecommunications (Cofetel), will join ICANN as our new representative to the Latin American region. Rodrigo is already well versed in ICANN’s...
  • ICANN Doesn’t Take Down Websites

    There have been many questions in recent days stemming from actions by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) in shutting down dozens of web sites. As we have said many times, ICANN was not a party to those actions by ICE, nor was it a target of them....
  • New gTLD Economic Study

    ICANN posted a follow-up independent economic study, “Economic Considerations in the Expansion of Generic Top-Level Domain Names, Phase II.” In the works for several months, the report provides an analysis of potential benefits of new gTLDs, potential costs of new gTLDs,...
  • US Government Opposes Launch of New gTLD Program in Cartagena

    We appreciate the many comments received so far on the draft Applicant Guidebook in its five full versions. We thank the community and all who contributed for their engagement, thoughts and opinions during the course of this process. One of the most recent comments we...
  • Update on ICANN’s Finances

    Earlier this year, we posted information on ICANN’s finances: http://blog.icann.org/2010/07/icanns-finances-at-a-glance/. Now that the FY10 audit is complete, we thought it would be helpful to provide an update for the community. First, the audit. Moss Adams, ICANN’s...
  • Public Participation Committee at ICANN Meeting

    Are you interested in Public Participation at ICANN? There is a group called the Public Participation Committee (PPC) of the ICANN Board and its Charter was approved in March 2009. According to this Charter, among its other duties, the PPC is primarily responsible for:...
  • Russian IDN ccTLD .рф Opens for Registrations, Makes History

    November 11, 2010, marked the day when the new IDN ccTLD .рф (Cyrillic for Российская Федерация, Russian Federation) was opened for general registration. Prior to that date the registration was open only for trademark owners and governmental institutions. Before the...
  • An Update on ICANN Security Efforts

    As the community prepares to head into the 39th international ICANN public meeting in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, ICANN’s Security team provides this update on current activities. A little over a year ago, ICANN signed the Affirmation of Commitments to ensure the...
  • And then there were 12

    This week we allocated two more /8s, this time to APNIC, the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region. There are now just 12 unallocated unicast IPv4 /8s. If you look at the chart above (click to enlarge) you can see that the number of unallocated /8s...
  • ICANN Performance You Can Measure

    Transparent, open and accountable. Our bylaws call for it. The community has asked for it. We are committed to it. As a nonprofit corporation working for the public good, we must be able to openly and easily provide answers to questions such as: What is ICANN doing to...
  • Is ICANN Handling Too Many Policy Issues?

    Earlier this month, DomainNameWire.com published an article about ICANN’s policy development process. The author, Andrew Allemann, strives for balance but overall leaves the impression that ICANN has “policy overload,” handling too many policy efforts at once. Andrew also...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."