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  • Technical Community Networking in the Middle East

    Last month, I had the opportunity to participate in two consecutive but separate gatherings in the Middle East targeting the technical community of this region. The first was the second meeting of the Middle East Network Operators Group (MENOG), hosted by Q-tel and held...
  • Paul Twomey speech at Vint Cerf Gala event, October 2007

    Speech by ICANN CEO Paul Twomey at Gala event to Vint Cerf on Tuesday 30 October 2007 at Sony Studios, 10202 West Washington Boulevard, Culver City, Los Angeles. Welcome everybody, so glad you’re here. Hello to everybody in the far corners. Unfortunately, I’m going to be...
  • Stats on October’s deleted comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, October 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. Apologies for the late posting. It was only noticed that October’s post was missing when...
  • A Root with a view…

    Running a DNS server that serves the root gives an interesting view into the world of the DNS.With the ongoing improvements to the ICANN operated L-ROOT we’ve been fortunate enough to be able to make use of the “DNS Statistics Collector” tool....
  • 6 week IDNwiki report – user statistics

    The IDNwiki was released at 4.10am PDT 15 October 2007 (UTC – 7hours). Now, 6 weeks later, here are some updated user statistics and related information. As mentioned previously we will also provide a report that focuses on the initial results with the evaluation of fully...
  • There are not 13 root servers

    I am at the UN Internet Governance Forum, being held this week in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A recurring theme you can hear here is one that has vexed the technical community many times before — “Why are there 13 root servers?” This question is usually followed by questions...
  • Rest in peace: Itojun, IPv6 pioneer

    It is with regret that ICANN mourns the passing of Jun-ichiro Hagino, better known as Itojun, aged 37. Itojun was a pioneer of IPv6 technology, best known for his extensive work in introducing the protocol into the BSD network stacks. In 1998, he helped start and became...
  • Thanks to those who came to Los Angeles

    The 30th International ICANN Meeting (and 2007 Annual General Meeting) concluded yesterday in Los Angeles, California. This blog post is to send out a special thanks to all those who attended the meeting in LA this week. ICANN looks forward to seeing the Internet...
  • ICANN Invites Internet Community to Pay Tribute to Dr Vint Cerf

    Board meeting: Friday, 2 November. Thanks and personal comments to Vint Cerf. The following is a partial transcript of the ICANN Board meeting at its 30th meeting in Los Angeles on Friday, 2 November 2007. It begins with CEO Paul Twomey reading out the Board resolution...
  • ALAC Public Forum Presentation

    The outgoing ALAC Chair, Jacqueline A. Morris, made a presentation at the Public Forum at the 30th ICANN meeting in Los Angeles. It’s reproduced here for your information. In general, there was mention of policy positions on IDNs, gTLD, the GNSO reform, the RAA, Ipv4 to...
  • End of Summer Time in Europe and Remote Participation

    Europe moved from summer time to winter time last night but the California won’t do so until next weekend. This means that for the week of the ICANN meeting the time difference between Europe and the US is different than normal. Anyone who wants to follow the sessions at...
  • Factsheet: IPv6

    It’s been a long while since we posted a factsheet – a clear guide to a technical subject written in plain English. Today we publish one on a very technical, but very important subject: IPv6. Internet Protocol version 6 is important for the Internet’s continued expansion...
  • Advisory — “L Root” changing IP address on 1st November

    This is advance notice that there is a scheduled change to the IP address for one of the authorities listed for the DNS root zone. The change is to L.ROOT-SERVERS.NET, which is administered by ICANN. The new IPv4 address for this authority is 199.7.83.42. This change is...
  • IDN wiki – 1Week Stats Update

    This is an update to the blog post at: http://blog.icann.org/?p=223#comments Page Requests and Users: After a week the total number of page requests served is: 128.267 Divided among the IDNwikis this is: Chinese/Chinese: 37.56% Cyrillic/Russian: 28.05% IDN Main gateway:...
  • Public comment period bonanza

    In the past few days, ICANN has put up a large number of documents for public comment, so this is a blog post just to make you aware of the fact. They include: Registry failover plan – the method by which registrants will be protected in the event of a failure Telnic...
  • Seeking Ideas on Allocation Methods

    Yesterday ICANN opened a forum for ideas on potential allocation methods for single-letter and single-digit domain names at the second level in gTLD registries (see announcement). The comment forum runs until 15 November 2007 23:59 UTC. To be considered, suggestions...
  • 24hr IDNwiki Report – What Do the User Stats Look Like?

    The IDNwikis were released at 4.10am PDT 15 October 2007 (UTC – 7hours). While the primary reason for the IDNwikis is to evaluate fully localized domain names in different applications, I thought it might be interesting with some user stats and related information from...
  • The problems of viewing IDNs

    Earlier this week, we inserted eleven new top-level domains in the DNS root zone. These represent the term “test” translated into ten languages, in ten different scripts (Chinese is represented in two different scripts, and Arabic script is used by two different...
  • Russian plans for development of Information Society

    Some of the Russian media reported in July 2007 that the Russian government plans to build its own Internet, independent of the World Wide Web, which will service Russia and the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries, such as Armenia, Moldova and the Ukraine....
  • We *are* listening to you – the proof!

    One of the most important ways for ICANN to be both transparent and accountable is the public comment period. ICANN is very unusual as an organisation in that all of its work – even when in draft form – is put out for public review. Unfortunately that review system has...
  • Update on University outreach

    Last Thursday, 4 October, I gave a presentation on ICANN at Loyola Law School as part of Loyola’s International IP Week in Los Angeles. The event was well attended and the students were very engaged. This was the third in a series of university outreach events leading up...
  • Enough addresses?

    I moved to Brussels to work from our office here at the start of August. One of the things I’d normally do when moving is working out which ISP to buy a service from. I haven’t done that yet because ‘Internet’ access is bundled along with the rent, water and electricity...
  • Where have you gone? Public participation conundrum

    There is a letter [pdf] from the Universal Postal Union (UPU) to ICANN concerning the use of their sTLD .post that may well have important implications for the future evolution of the domain name system. This letter was received on 5 September and immediately posted on...
  • Stats on September’s deleted blog comments

    In the interests of openness, we have compiled statistics for the posts we have deleted from the blog last month, September 2007, broken down according to person and type of comment. We have only listed those who had three or more comments deleted. There was no...
  • A successful, yet not complete, trip to Russia

    On 25 September, ICANN CEO Paul Twomey and myself (as the regional manager) visited Moscow at the invitation of the Russian Minister of Information Technologies and Communications. While over there we were also scheduled to meet some of the .ru Board members, the .su...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."