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  • Ways of Trusting Internet Identifiers

    Recent news that Google's Chrome browser is going to trust Symantec-issued transport layer security (TLS) certificates less than those from other certificate authorities (CAs) has reignited debates about how trust is expressed to Internet users. Certificates for TLS are...
  • The Three Pillars of ICANN’s Technical Engagement Strategy

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    ICANN's technical engagement team was established two years ago. Since then, we have made a great deal of progress in better engaging with our peers throughout the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) stewardship transition proposal process and currently during the...
  • Co-Chairs Statement from CCWG-Accountability Meeting in Copenhagen

    On 10 March 2017, the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) held a full day face-to-face meeting prior to ICANN58 in Copenhagen, Denmark. 90 members and participants attended in-person, and many others joined remotely using...
  • A Conversation with Community Leader Lise Fuhr

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    Lise Fuhr is a leader in the Internet community in Denmark. Here, she reflects on what ICANN58 means for Denmark – and what are the key issues she will focus on at the meeting. Tell us a little about yourself and your involvement in ICANN. I’m currently Director General...
  • Breaking Down Terminology Barriers in ICANN

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    This page is available in: English | العربية | Español | Français | Pусский | 中文 In the ICANN world, the numbers of terms, names and acronyms are increasing daily with each initiative, program or newly established panel. And more terms emerge for each new issue and...
  • Publication of the LAC DNS Marketplace Study

    The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) announces the publication of the final report [PDF, 3.9 MB] on the Latin American and Caribbean DNS Marketplace Study. The LAC DNS Study was completed after receiving feedback from the Public Comments...
  • What Is Ransomware?

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    Ransomware is a cyberattack (a virus) that is used to extort money. Originally, criminals used ransomware to extract payments from individuals for the recovery of personal information. Today, cyberattackers extort payments from businesses for the recovery of sensitive...
  • Tech@ICANN58: Your Roadmap to Copenhagen's Technical Sessions

    As we start our meeting here in Copenhagen with a packed agenda, I would like to share with you some of the key sessions that have a more technical focus. I hope that this will be useful to newcomers with a technical background, so they can easily find their way...
  • Welcome to Copenhagen

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    I am very glad to be here in Denmark and hope to talk to as many of you as possible while we’re here at the Community Forum. This has been a big year for accountability in the ICANN ecosystem. We are under new, enhanced and improved accountability measures. We are on a...
  • Top 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Denmark

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    1. The Danish word hygge was rated one of the top 10 words of 2016. In fact, hygge ranked right behind Brexit in Collins Dictionary’s words of the year. Hygge refers to a feeling of togetherness and intimacy related to relaxing with family and friends. The best English...
  • 关于丹麦您不知道的 10 件事

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    1. 丹麦词 hygge 被评为 2016 年度 10 大词汇之一。 事实上,在柯林斯词典公布的年度词汇榜单中,hygge 仅次于 Brexit。Hygge 是指一种与家人和朋友休闲时的归属感和亲密感。最贴近的英文翻译是"coziness"(温馨)。在漫长、黑暗的冬季,摇曳的烛光、舒适的毛毯和温热的饮品可为丹麦家庭带来 hygge,这也解释了为何丹麦人如此幸福。 2.端到端摆放,丹麦一年卖出的乐高积木的总数量可以绕地球五圈。 1934 年,丹麦木匠奥勒·基奥克·克里斯第森 (Ole Kirk Christiansen)...
  • Top 10 Things to Do in Copenhagen

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    The seaside city of Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark – it’s rich in cultural, historic and culinary traditions. Be sure to carve out some time from your busy schedule at ICANN58 and get to know the city. Copenhagen is ideal for wandering around, but if you want to be...
  • Welcome to ICANN58

    Jean-Jacques Sahel, ICANN's VP, Global Stakeholder Engagement, Europe, welcomes you to ICANN58 in the beautiful seaside city of Copenhagen. In this video, Sahel stresses the importance of participation and collaboration at ICANN. He says that with the many sessions...
  • ICANN Board to Hold Two Open Meetings at ICANN58

    As part of an ongoing pilot program following up on its commitment to open sessions, the ICANN Board of Directors will make two of its sessions at ICANN58 in Copenhagen open to the community and public. The Board invites all interested individuals to join. Note that times...
  • The Fellowship Spirit | Part One of a Four-Part Blog Series

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    As the ICANN community, organization and Board prepare for ICANN58 in Copenhagen, I am already looking ahead to ICANN59 in Johannesburg. It’s not because I prefer warm sun over winter chill – it’s the anticipation of the upcoming 10-year anniversary of the ICANN...
  • Countdown to ICANN58: Copenhagen

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    In less than two weeks, the Internet community will gather in the Danish capital of Copenhagen for ICANN58. One of the oldest capitals in Europe and a hotbed of tech innovation, Copenhagen offers something for everyone – from history to art to food and more. Against the...
  • Six Weeks in Contractual Compliance and Consumer Safeguards

    At the start of 2017, I took over for Allen Grogan as the head of ICANN's Contractual Compliance and Consumer Safeguards department. As part of my on-the-job training, I spend a lot of my time on community outreach, which is critical to success in this role. This week, I...
  • The Problem with "The Seven Keys"

    From time to time, articles are published about "the seven people who control the keys to the Internet.” These articles, while probably well-intentioned, are completely incorrect. Let’s be absolutely clear: there are no keys that cause the Internet to function (or not to...
  • ICANN Expands Engagement in the Caribbean in 2016

    Bridgetown, Barbados In 2016, ICANN’s Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) team promoted the domain name system (DNS) industry across the Caribbean region. Planning started for the DNS Study in the Caribbean. We presented on the DNS industry at many local, national and...
  • Chairman’s Blog

    Over the next few months I will be using this blog to share some insights and commentary on the operation of the ICANN Board and to introduce various Board members. This past week the Board passed a resolution to evolve the Board Governance Committee to be more responsive...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."