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  • ICANN Board Resolutions Wiki Launched

    Wondering how many resolutions ICANN’s Board of Directors approved on new gTLDs before this year? Researching historic ICANN Board actions on IPv6? Looking for the status of IDN ccTLD fast-track resolution implementation? Have we got a new tool for you! As part of the...
  • Internet Policy Expert Named as Latin American Representative

    I’m proud to announce that Rodrigo de la Parra, the Director General of Prospective Regulation of Mexico’s Federal Commission of Telecommunications (Cofetel), will join ICANN as our new representative to the Latin American region. Rodrigo is already well versed in ICANN’s...
  • ICANN Doesn’t Take Down Websites

    There have been many questions in recent days stemming from actions by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) in shutting down dozens of web sites. As we have said many times, ICANN was not a party to those actions by ICE, nor was it a target of them....
  • New gTLD Economic Study

    ICANN posted a follow-up independent economic study, “Economic Considerations in the Expansion of Generic Top-Level Domain Names, Phase II.” In the works for several months, the report provides an analysis of potential benefits of new gTLDs, potential costs of new gTLDs,...
  • US Government Opposes Launch of New gTLD Program in Cartagena

    We appreciate the many comments received so far on the draft Applicant Guidebook in its five full versions. We thank the community and all who contributed for their engagement, thoughts and opinions during the course of this process. One of the most recent comments we...
  • Update on ICANN’s Finances

    Earlier this year, we posted information on ICANN’s finances: http://blog.icann.org/2010/07/icanns-finances-at-a-glance/. Now that the FY10 audit is complete, we thought it would be helpful to provide an update for the community. First, the audit. Moss Adams, ICANN’s...
  • Public Participation Committee at ICANN Meeting

    Are you interested in Public Participation at ICANN? There is a group called the Public Participation Committee (PPC) of the ICANN Board and its Charter was approved in March 2009. According to this Charter, among its other duties, the PPC is primarily responsible for:...
  • Russian IDN ccTLD .рф Opens for Registrations, Makes History

    November 11, 2010, marked the day when the new IDN ccTLD .рф (Cyrillic for Российская Федерация, Russian Federation) was opened for general registration. Prior to that date the registration was open only for trademark owners and governmental institutions. Before the...
  • An Update on ICANN Security Efforts

    As the community prepares to head into the 39th international ICANN public meeting in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, ICANN’s Security team provides this update on current activities. A little over a year ago, ICANN signed the Affirmation of Commitments to ensure the...
  • And then there were 12

    This week we allocated two more /8s, this time to APNIC, the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region. There are now just 12 unallocated unicast IPv4 /8s. If you look at the chart above (click to enlarge) you can see that the number of unallocated /8s...
  • ICANN Performance You Can Measure

    Transparent, open and accountable. Our bylaws call for it. The community has asked for it. We are committed to it. As a nonprofit corporation working for the public good, we must be able to openly and easily provide answers to questions such as: What is ICANN doing to...
  • Is ICANN Handling Too Many Policy Issues?

    Earlier this month, DomainNameWire.com published an article about ICANN’s policy development process. The author, Andrew Allemann, strives for balance but overall leaves the impression that ICANN has “policy overload,” handling too many policy efforts at once. Andrew also...
  • If you build it, they will come

    As you would expect, most of ICANN’s external services, including this blog, are available over IPv6 as well as IPv4. And at the request of the ICANN Board, a regular comparative measure of IPv6 use at the ICANN and IANA websites has been provided to them for months. The...
  • CEO Remarks on Black Hat / Def Con

    Several ICANN staff members attended the Black Hat and Defcon conferences last week to launch DNSSEC to the global Internet security community. Black Hat is one of the world’s premier security conferences; it attracts about 5,000 onsite participants and many more online....
  • ICANN’s Finances at a Glance

    With the end of the FY10 financial year, I would like to take this opportunity to address questions raised by community members and provide some insights on the overall state of finances at ICANN. Last year, as the FY10 budget was adopted, we committed to perform a...
  • Putting IPv6 Addresses into Context

    Because IPv6 is so much larger than IPv4, the IETF has been able to structure the address space more neatly. Consequently, it is easier to distinguish between different address types based on the first few characters in the address, rather than having to refer to...
  • IGF Continuation is a Multistakeholder Effort

    Having an Internet Governance workshop at ICANN meetings has become a norm in the past few years. The purpose of such workshops is to inform ICANN community of developments taking place at IGF fora, and to allow participants to exchange views on the various issues under...
  • Making Chinese Internet History

    This past week was quite the historical change for the Internet with several additional languages moving forward in the IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process. Chinese: With one billion people around the world using Chinese as their primary language, it means that one out of every...
  • Call for Input: Support for New gTLD Applicants

    The ICANN board recently passed a resolution requesting that a Working Group develop a sustainable approach to providing support to applicants requiring assistance in applying for and operating new gTLDs. (http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/resolutions-12mar10-en.htm#20) The...
  • Podcast: Cops and Registrants Seek to Amend the RAA

    We always try to have a new ICANN Start podcast episode available to you by the first of each month, and the 1 June episode has arrived early. This month’s episode discusses ICANN’s Registrar Accreditation Agreement. If you’re not familiar with it, perhaps you should be —...
  • Looking at the Future of ICANN’s International Meetings

    ICANN’s meetings, their structure, content, and everything else about them have always been very important – and everything about them has been a subject of debate since the very first one was convened. In fact, there are as many opinions about aspects of the meetings as...
  • Try the new IANA WHOIS server

    We currently provide a WHOIS server at whois.iana.org which provides the ability to lookup information for a certain subset of domains, most notably the details of top-level domains. One of the projects we’ve been working on within the IANA department is to develop a new...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."