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  • Update Los Angeles North America Registry Registrar Meeting

    ICANN is making available the presentations and recordings of the North America Registry Registrar session that took place in Los Angeles 17-18 of May 2012. Although the event is tailored to regional ICANN-accredited registrars and gTLD registries, a good number of...
  • ICANN Receives Arab World Award

    On a recent trip to Kuwait to receive one of the top awards in information technology in the Arab world, ICANN President and CEO Rod Beckstrom, with Vice President of Europe Nigel Hickson, and Regional Manager of the Middle East Baher Esmat, met with His Highness Sheikh...
  • Jeff Moss Goes to Moscow

    ICANN’s vice president and CSO, Jeff Moss, visited Moscow for the 3rd Russian Internet Governance Forum. He was the keynote speaker at the Russian IGF, but the local organizers, the Russian Coordination Center for the .ru ccTLD decided to use him even more, and invited...
  • ICANN to Convene North America Regional Registry/Registrar Event

    On 17-18 May 2012, ICANN and its gTLD registration services providers will meet in Los Angeles, USA. These regional events are a chance for ICANN staff and representatives from gTLD registries and ICANN-accredited registrars to meet informally to discuss topics important...
  • More Number Scarcity

    Last year ICANN allocated the last five IPv4 blocks to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). Since then we have seen a concerted effort on the part of network and content providers to make sure they support IPv6, so they’ll be ready for the next few billion Internet...
  • Ten Million DNS Resolvers on the Internet

    Resolvers are servers on the Internet which use the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol [TXT, 120 KB] to retrieve information from authoritative servers and return answers to end-user applications. They’re often found in enterprise and ISP networks, and there are a number...
  • ICANN Hosts Commonwealth Cybercrime Initiative Workshop

    Offers to Assist in Securing DNS 14 March — ICANN welcomed members of the Commonwealth Cybercrime Initiative (CCI) Steering Group to Costa Rica as part of its efforts to improve the security, stability and resiliency of the global Domain Name System (DNS). The meeting...
  • L-Root in your Pocket

    OK, so not quite in your pocket. But near your pocket. ICANN operates L-Root, one of the 13 Domain Name System root servers which together make up the infrastructure known as the Root Server System. The Root Servers serve the root zone of the DNS, maintained by ICANN...
  • Thought Paper on Domain Seizures and Takedowns

    Recent legal actions (Rustock, Coreflood and Kelihos, among others) resulting in disrupting or dismantling major criminal networks have involved seizures of domain names, DNS name server reconfiguration and transfers of domain name registrations as part of the takedown...
  • Measuring Worldwide Growth in IPv6 Deployments

    This is a guest post by Mirjam Kühne, Labs Community Builder at the RIPE NCC. RIPE Labs is a platform designed by the RIPE NCC for network operators, industry experts and the RIPE NCC to expose, test and discuss innovative Internet-related tools, ideas and analysis. In...
  • Threats Against DNS Root Servers

    We have been receiving questions from various parties concerning the recent threat against the Internet’s root servers that is purported to have originated with the group Anonymous. We are aware of the threat and we take all threats against the DNS infrastructure...
  • ICANN.ORG Redesign Welcomes the Global Visitor

    Our long-planned redesign of ICANN.ORG just went live today, 27 February. The new information architecture arranges the resources that ICANN.ORG offers in a more logical arrangement. More than 38,000 pages and files were carefully examined and migrated into the best...
  • ICANN Stands Ready for New gTLD Launch

    On Tuesday 3 January 2012, our executive team met with Michael Salazar, New gTLD Program Director, toreview ICANN’s readiness to open the application window for the new generic top-level domain program on Thursday, 12 January,as planned. We carefully reviewed every...
  • New gTLD Roadshows

    I have spent a lot of time on the road recently. My visits to 16 countries in three months were just one part of ICANN’s busy and successful international roadshows to raise awareness of new generic top-level domains. Since the roadshows began in September as part of the...
  • EBERO Plan Moving Forward Rapidly

    Monday, 5 December marked the Request for Information (RFI) deadline that asked Emergency Back-End Registry Operator (EBERO) candidates to submit their proposals if they would like to be considered for the new gTLD EBERO Program. We received 14 RFIs from respondents in...
  • Carefully Constructed New gTLD Program Moves Forward

    Senator Jay Rockefeller’s introductory statement at the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation’s hearing regarding ICANN’s New gTLD Program on December 8, 2011 went right to the issue: “I think we have to get used to dot-hotels. I think we have to...
  • Embracing Africa’s Online Future

    ICANN has always tried to embrace Africa. Imagine, then, our delight that Africa has embraced us in return – with great ardor. I had the privilege of speaking Wednesday morning with the men and women attending the AFRALO capacity building program. AFRALO is the African...
  • gTLD WHOIS Privacy and Proxy Relay and Reveal Survey Now Live

    As part of a broader examination of gTLD WHOIS, ICANN’s Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) Council is seeking to gain further insight into the origination and handling of “relay” and “reveal” requests. A relay request is a request to forward a message to the...
  • ICANN.ORG’s New Theme Is Just the First Step

    If you’ve visited www.ICANN.ORG today, you might notice that the site looks different than it did last week. We’ve refreshed the look of the pages as the first step in a comprehensive overhaul of ICANN.ORG. The new look removes some clutter. For example, contrast the way...
  • New Ombudsman at ICANN

    Dear ICANN Community, My name is Chris LaHatte, and I am ICANN’s new Ombudsman. I will be available online to assist and facilitate the ICANN community as the organization faces many challenges from the gTLD expansion, the huge growth in Internet use in the developing...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."