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  • Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting Exceeds Expectations

    The recently completed Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting held in Amsterdam exceeded all previous regional meetings in local and remote participation. The meeting was attended by 240 current or prospective registries and registrars and observers. There were over...
  • Update from Amsterdam Registry Registrar Regional Meeting

    We are delighted to see so much interest reflected, with over 240 registrants for the regional Registry Registrar meeting taking place in Amsterdam January 24th and 25th 2013. This is by far the most attended regional meeting since ICANN started the hosting regional...
  • DNS Industry CEO Roundtable Events

    21 December 2012 To the ICANN Community, I believe The Domain Name System — and the Industry that has grown up around it — are at an inflection point. With the impending introduction of new gTLDs and the vertical integration of the DNS value chain, we, as leaders within...
  • Tracking the SSR Review Implementation

    This is an update on our progress with implementation of the 28 recommendations from the Security, Stability and Resiliency (SSR) Review Team. In October at the ICANN meeting in Toronto, the ICANN Board approved the Final Report and recommendations of the Security,...
  • WCIT…In Conclusion

    Friends and colleagues, Today marks the end of the lengthy WCIT conference in Dubai. I am sure you along with most of our community have been watching events carefully. As you know, Steve Crocker and I were invited to attend the opening ceremony two weeks ago, and I was...
  • Advisory — D-root is changing its IPv4 address on 3 January 2013

    We are passing on this announcement from our colleagues at the University of Maryland, regarding a change to the IPv4 address to one of the DNS root servers. This is advance notice that there is a scheduled change to the IPv4 address for one of the authorities listed for...
  • Concluding the Series of Trademark Clearinghouse Meetings

    Today I convened the final informational call to close off the series of stakeholder meetings on implementing the Trademark Clearinghouse. I shared the following updates: Trademark Clearinghouse Agreements I am pleased to announce that we have signed an agreement with...
  • A Follow-Up to Our Trademark Clearinghouse Meetings

    To wrap up the series of meetings ICANN convened with stakeholders to find common ground on Trademark Clearinghouse implementation, we conducted a follow-up briefing today for the group who worked on these issues during our meetings in Brussels and Los Angeles. We...
  • Trademark Clearinghouse Update

    This week, I met with a group of stakeholder representatives to work with ICANN staff to complete implementation discussions on the Trademark Clearinghouse and its associated rights protection mechanisms. As I wrote in my previous post from Brussels, these implementation...
  • ICANN to Convene Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting

    On 24-25 January 2013, ICANN and its gTLD registration services providers will meet in Amsterdam for the Europe Regional Registry/Registrar meeting. These regional meetings are a chance for ICANN staff and representatives from gTLD registries and ICANN-accredited...
  • Building a Secure and Reliable Trademark Clearinghouse

    Last week, I invited a group of stakeholder representatives to work with ICANN on architecture/implementation solutions for the Trademark Clearinghouse. The issues we tackled included: Registration: How trademark data will be verified and recorded in the Clearinghouse....
  • LACNIC at 10 and the Pioneers Who Made It Happen

    Español Top row (from left to right): Julián Dunayevich – Argentina, Wardner Maia – Brasil, Alejandro Guzmán – Colombia, Oscar Robles-Garay – México, Rafael Ibarra – El Salvador, Raúl Echeberría – Uruguay, José Luiz Ribeiro Filho – Brasil, Germán Valdez – México, and...
  • What You Should Learn from the Diigo Domain Hijacking incident

    Dave Piscitello, Sr. Security Technologist, for the ICANN Security Team Diigo is a social annotation and bookmarking service that millions of individuals, educators, and students use daily to manage and share information, conduct research and collaborate. On October 24th,...
  • Root Zone KSK vs. Hurricane Sandy

    ICANN is responsible for the management of the root zone’s DNSSEC Key Signing Key (KSK). This responsibility includes secure storage of cryptographic key material in redundant Key Management Facilities (KMFs) located within the USA, one in Culpeper, Virginia and one in El...
  • CNNIC Selected to Implement an Open-Source RESTful WHOIS Server

    We are pleased to report that ICANN has engaged China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) to produce an open-source RESTful WHOIS Server Implementation. This project is being launched to facilitate the eventual adoption of the recent IETF standard work to develop...
  • Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Strategy

    The day finally arrived. October 17th, 2012. Community members from Latin America and the Caribbean met at the ICANN45 meeting in Toronto to discuss a strategic plan for the region. For the first time ever, regional representatives from each constituency or stakeholder...
  • RZM is One Year Old!

    A little over a year ago, on 21 July 2011, ICANN, Verisign and NTIA launched a Root Zone Management (RZM) workflow automation system. This system gives top-level domain (TLD) operators greater flexibility when updating their TLD delegations: they can log in to the system...
  • We Want to Hear from You on ICANN’s SSR Role and Remit

    In mid May, ICANN published a draft statement of its role and remit in the security, stability and resiliency of the Internet’s unique identifiers. After the ICANN meeting in Prague, the public comment period was extended until 31 August 2012. While a number of comments...
  • Farewell, My Friends

    Today, July 1st, 2012 I pass the ICANN CEO baton to Akram Atallah, who joined us as Chief Operating Officer some two years ago. We are extremely pleased to see Akram stepping up into this position until Fadi Chehadé joins in the fall. It has been a great pleasure and...
  • IPv6: Still on the Radar

    This is a guest post by Axel Pawlik, Managing Director of the RIPE NCC. The RIPE NCC is the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for Europe, the Middle East and parts of Central Asia. For many of us in the technical community, it feels like we’ve been talking about the need...
  • IPv6 All the Way Down

    In the past we’ve talked about how the Internet’s key infrastructure has been getting ready for IPv6. In 2004, the first IPv6 glue was added to the root DNS zone for .JP and .KR but when you look at a part of the root zone today – the part related to ccTLDs derived from...
  • GNSO Website Re-Design

    By now I’m sure many of you have noticed the newly designed GNSO web site at http://gnso.icann.org. The new site went “LIVE” on 24 May. In addition to overall cosmetic and design changes, a key feature of the new site is an updated navigation structure to make it easier...
  • LACTLD Policy Workshop in the Middle of the World

    Earlier this month in Quito, Ecuador, I was invited to deliver a presentation at the Latin American and Caribbean TLD (LACTLD) Policy Workshop. The workshop agenda focused on cybersecurity, Internet governance and intellectual property and how these may impact the ccTLD...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."