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Blog

  • One Last Look at the RAA

    We are there. As a result of sincere and constructive negotiations that have gone on for nearly 18 months, a new 2013 Registrar Accreditation Agreement is in our hands. All remaining differences have been settled and ICANN and the members of the Registrar Negotiating Team...
  • An Update on Technical Engagement

    ICANN has a long tradition of working with the Internet community to support technical training, going back 10 years to the ICANN meeting in Carthage, Tunisia in October 2003. Over the years, these trainings have assisted with improving skills, creating awareness of DNS...
  • Single Source of Whois-Related Agreement Provisions and Policies

    Today, ICANN posted a single information source for the current gTLD WHOIS-related agreement provisions and policies to make them easier for the community to access. The suggestion for such a webpage came from the WHOIS Policy Review Team and was accepted by the Board for...
  • Talking About the Middle East in Beijing

    Even though we’re gathered this week in the Asia Pacific, we are continuing our work on the three-year Middle East engagement strategy over the past three months. On Monday, I had the honor of facilitating a working session with about 60 ICANN community members about the...
  • Join the Strategy Conversation

    As Fadi Chehadé, ICANN’s President & CEO, announced this week, we have launched a public conversation about ICANN’s future. We are seeking ideas from the global community to help create a new, overarching vision and five-year strategy for ICANN. An animated video and...
  • Are you passionate about Internet governance?

    If you like challenges, embrace change, are passionate about Internet governance and a fervent believer in bottom-up consensus-building, then ICANN’s Nominating Committee wants to hear from you. We are seeking volunteers who are enthusiastic about the Internet to serve on...
  • Ombudsman in Beijing

    The ICANN life seems to revolve around our meetings. In Toronto, our Communications team recorded a short video of me attending meetings and talking to our community. As we prepare for Beijing, I am excited to visit a country where some of the oldest civilizations are now...
  • Do More to Prevent DNS DDoS Attacks

    Dave Piscitello, on behalf of the ICANN Security Team In recent weeks, numerous high profile organizations and financial institutions have been targets of massive service disruption attacks. Several of these attacks are characteristically similar to attacks against top...
  • Revised Registry Agreement Posted for Review

    In the interest of transparency and accountability ICANN is providing the latest revision of the previously posted "Revised New gTLD Registry Agreement" for the community’s information and review. Clean [PDF, 458 KB] Redline [PDF, 455 KB] Summary of Changes [PDF, 155 KB]...
  • Changes to the Public Forum

    As we go into the Beijing meeting, I am struck by the manner in which ICANN meetings are defined by the open exchange of ideas. In no small way, the meetings form the foundation for discussion, agreement and often-respectful disagreement. It is not merely an opportunity...
  • WHOIS & What’s to Come

    By Margie Milam, Senior Director, Strategic Initiatives In October ICANN’s President & CEO, Fadi Chehadé, announced an ambitious plan for tackling one of ICANN’s most controversial issues—WHOIS. Undeterred by the decade’s long debate, and encouraged by the WHOIS...
  • Senior Executive Roundtable with ISPs and Telecoms

    In addition to the ccTLD CEO Roundtable in London (see blog), I was able to meet the next day, 14 March 2013, with senior executives from Internet Service Providers (ISPs) as well as from telecommunications companies (telecoms). During the course of our roundtable, we...
  • CEO Roundtable III: ccTLDs and the DNS Sector

    I was pleased to have the opportunity last week to meet with a group of ccTLDs in London, as part of a series of CEO Roundtables centered on strategic issues faced by the Domain Name System (DNS) sector. This roundtable served as a forum for the ccTLDs, from a diverse set...
  • A New Track with New G’s

    I am writing these words on a train en route back home to Washington from New York City and I’m happy to report that the train is moving just a tad faster than development of the new gTLD program. Based on my calculations, it will take considerably less than seven years...
  • Without Effective Implementation, a Policy is Just an Idea…

    Even the best policies can encounter implementation challenges. Thus, policies should be viewed as “living documents.” They need leadership, resources, monitoring, and other inputs to thrive and achieve their goals 1. The rules for formal policy development at ICANN are...
  • ICANN Coordinated Disclosure Guidelines

    The Security Team has prepared a set of guidelines to explain ICANN's Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure Reporting. The guidelines serve two purposes. They define the role ICANN will perform in circumstances where vulnerabilities are reported and ICANN determines that...
  • Arab Multi-stakeholder Internet Governance Meeting Wraps Up in Dubai

    Last week, the Arab Internet community came together to discuss Internet governance issues and priorities related to the region. The Arab Multi-stakeholder Internet Governance meeting took place in Dubai as part of the Arab IGF open consultations. The meeting, hosted by...
  • Registrar Accreditation Agreement Negotiation Session

    Building on the great work that has been achieved to date, yesterday I met with the Registrar Stakeholder Group’s Negotiating Team to continue with negotiations toward a new Registrar Accreditation Agreement (RAA). We started the day by affirming our commitment to...
  • CEO Roundtable II: The Registries

    On Monday, I was very pleased to host more than a dozen leaders from the registry community; participants in our latest CEO Roundtable series focused on key issues and trends within the Domain Name System sector. Over the course of a day, we discussed the evolution of the...
  • Initial Root Zone Growth Statistics Published

    In December 2012, ICANN announced the start of work to collect and publish data which would help correlate performance of L-Root with growth in the root zone. The first set of measurements concerned with identifying growth in the root zone, was published last month....
  • Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting Exceeds Expectations

    The recently completed Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting held in Amsterdam exceeded all previous regional meetings in local and remote participation. The meeting was attended by 240 current or prospective registries and registrars and observers. There were over...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."