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  • Arab Multi-stakeholder Internet Governance Meeting Wraps Up in Dubai

    Last week, the Arab Internet community came together to discuss Internet governance issues and priorities related to the region. The Arab Multi-stakeholder Internet Governance meeting took place in Dubai as part of the Arab IGF open consultations. The meeting, hosted by...
  • Registrar Accreditation Agreement Negotiation Session

    Building on the great work that has been achieved to date, yesterday I met with the Registrar Stakeholder Group’s Negotiating Team to continue with negotiations toward a new Registrar Accreditation Agreement (RAA). We started the day by affirming our commitment to...
  • CEO Roundtable II: The Registries

    On Monday, I was very pleased to host more than a dozen leaders from the registry community; participants in our latest CEO Roundtable series focused on key issues and trends within the Domain Name System sector. Over the course of a day, we discussed the evolution of the...
  • Initial Root Zone Growth Statistics Published

    In December 2012, ICANN announced the start of work to collect and publish data which would help correlate performance of L-Root with growth in the root zone. The first set of measurements concerned with identifying growth in the root zone, was published last month....
  • Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting Exceeds Expectations

    The recently completed Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting held in Amsterdam exceeded all previous regional meetings in local and remote participation. The meeting was attended by 240 current or prospective registries and registrars and observers. There were over...
  • Update from Amsterdam Registry Registrar Regional Meeting

    We are delighted to see so much interest reflected, with over 240 registrants for the regional Registry Registrar meeting taking place in Amsterdam January 24th and 25th 2013. This is by far the most attended regional meeting since ICANN started the hosting regional...
  • DNS Industry CEO Roundtable Events

    21 December 2012 To the ICANN Community, I believe The Domain Name System — and the Industry that has grown up around it — are at an inflection point. With the impending introduction of new gTLDs and the vertical integration of the DNS value chain, we, as leaders within...
  • Tracking the SSR Review Implementation

    This is an update on our progress with implementation of the 28 recommendations from the Security, Stability and Resiliency (SSR) Review Team. In October at the ICANN meeting in Toronto, the ICANN Board approved the Final Report and recommendations of the Security,...
  • WCIT…In Conclusion

    Friends and colleagues, Today marks the end of the lengthy WCIT conference in Dubai. I am sure you along with most of our community have been watching events carefully. As you know, Steve Crocker and I were invited to attend the opening ceremony two weeks ago, and I was...
  • Advisory — D-root is changing its IPv4 address on 3 January 2013

    We are passing on this announcement from our colleagues at the University of Maryland, regarding a change to the IPv4 address to one of the DNS root servers. This is advance notice that there is a scheduled change to the IPv4 address for one of the authorities listed for...
  • Concluding the Series of Trademark Clearinghouse Meetings

    Today I convened the final informational call to close off the series of stakeholder meetings on implementing the Trademark Clearinghouse. I shared the following updates: Trademark Clearinghouse Agreements I am pleased to announce that we have signed an agreement with...
  • A Follow-Up to Our Trademark Clearinghouse Meetings

    To wrap up the series of meetings ICANN convened with stakeholders to find common ground on Trademark Clearinghouse implementation, we conducted a follow-up briefing today for the group who worked on these issues during our meetings in Brussels and Los Angeles. We...
  • Trademark Clearinghouse Update

    This week, I met with a group of stakeholder representatives to work with ICANN staff to complete implementation discussions on the Trademark Clearinghouse and its associated rights protection mechanisms. As I wrote in my previous post from Brussels, these implementation...
  • ICANN to Convene Europe Regional Registry/Registrar Meeting

    On 24-25 January 2013, ICANN and its gTLD registration services providers will meet in Amsterdam for the Europe Regional Registry/Registrar meeting. These regional meetings are a chance for ICANN staff and representatives from gTLD registries and ICANN-accredited...
  • Building a Secure and Reliable Trademark Clearinghouse

    Last week, I invited a group of stakeholder representatives to work with ICANN on architecture/implementation solutions for the Trademark Clearinghouse. The issues we tackled included: Registration: How trademark data will be verified and recorded in the Clearinghouse....
  • LACNIC at 10 and the Pioneers Who Made It Happen

    Español Top row (from left to right): Julián Dunayevich – Argentina, Wardner Maia – Brasil, Alejandro Guzmán – Colombia, Oscar Robles-Garay – México, Rafael Ibarra – El Salvador, Raúl Echeberría – Uruguay, José Luiz Ribeiro Filho – Brasil, Germán Valdez – México, and...
  • What You Should Learn from the Diigo Domain Hijacking incident

    Dave Piscitello, Sr. Security Technologist, for the ICANN Security Team Diigo is a social annotation and bookmarking service that millions of individuals, educators, and students use daily to manage and share information, conduct research and collaborate. On October 24th,...
  • Root Zone KSK vs. Hurricane Sandy

    ICANN is responsible for the management of the root zone’s DNSSEC Key Signing Key (KSK). This responsibility includes secure storage of cryptographic key material in redundant Key Management Facilities (KMFs) located within the USA, one in Culpeper, Virginia and one in El...
  • CNNIC Selected to Implement an Open-Source RESTful WHOIS Server

    We are pleased to report that ICANN has engaged China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) to produce an open-source RESTful WHOIS Server Implementation. This project is being launched to facilitate the eventual adoption of the recent IETF standard work to develop...
  • Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Strategy

    The day finally arrived. October 17th, 2012. Community members from Latin America and the Caribbean met at the ICANN45 meeting in Toronto to discuss a strategic plan for the region. For the first time ever, regional representatives from each constituency or stakeholder...
  • RZM is One Year Old!

    A little over a year ago, on 21 July 2011, ICANN, Verisign and NTIA launched a Root Zone Management (RZM) workflow automation system. This system gives top-level domain (TLD) operators greater flexibility when updating their TLD delegations: they can log in to the system...
  • We Want to Hear from You on ICANN’s SSR Role and Remit

    In mid May, ICANN published a draft statement of its role and remit in the security, stability and resiliency of the Internet’s unique identifiers. After the ICANN meeting in Prague, the public comment period was extended until 31 August 2012. While a number of comments...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."