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Blog

  • New Organizational Changes

    It is with great pleasure that I share with you some exciting new organizational changes that will be taking place at the start of the new fiscal year on July 1, and which are part of my desire to increase ICANN’s focus on management at all levels. To handle the...
  • Reflections on Geneva

    I had the privilege to attend the ITU’s World Telecommunication Policy Forum (WTPF) last week in Geneva alongside Fadi, Tarek Kamel, Steve Crocker and other Board members. Apart from the rain, it was a very good week! As followers of the Internet Governance agenda can...
  • Answering Your Questions

    During the Public Forum session at the recent ICANN meeting in Beijing, community members asked the Board quite a few important questions and made some interesting comments. In response, we have conferred with those ICANN staff members who have the greatest expertise in...
  • 2013 Registry Agreement Posted for Community Review and Comments

    I am delighted to report that we have now posted a proposed final draft of the New gTLD Registry Agreement. Similar to the proposed 2013 Registrar Accreditation Agreement (RAA) that was posted for public comment on 22 April 2013, the ICANN community is now able to review...
  • DNS Summit in New York

    On April 23, I met with leaders of ccTLDs, Registries, and Registrars in New York City for a milestone event that converged our work initiated during each of the CEO Roundtables hosted since the beginning of this year. Throughout the roundtable series, I have learned a...
  • How to Report a DDoS Attack

    Dave Piscitello, on behalf of the ICANN Security Team DDoS attacks are serious problems. While ICANN’s role in mitigating these threats is limited, the Security Team offers these insights to raise awareness on how to report DDoS attacks Distributed Denial of Service...
  • One Last Look at the RAA

    We are there. As a result of sincere and constructive negotiations that have gone on for nearly 18 months, a new 2013 Registrar Accreditation Agreement is in our hands. All remaining differences have been settled and ICANN and the members of the Registrar Negotiating Team...
  • An Update on Technical Engagement

    ICANN has a long tradition of working with the Internet community to support technical training, going back 10 years to the ICANN meeting in Carthage, Tunisia in October 2003. Over the years, these trainings have assisted with improving skills, creating awareness of DNS...
  • Single Source of Whois-Related Agreement Provisions and Policies

    Today, ICANN posted a single information source for the current gTLD WHOIS-related agreement provisions and policies to make them easier for the community to access. The suggestion for such a webpage came from the WHOIS Policy Review Team and was accepted by the Board for...
  • Talking About the Middle East in Beijing

    Even though we’re gathered this week in the Asia Pacific, we are continuing our work on the three-year Middle East engagement strategy over the past three months. On Monday, I had the honor of facilitating a working session with about 60 ICANN community members about the...
  • Join the Strategy Conversation

    As Fadi Chehadé, ICANN’s President & CEO, announced this week, we have launched a public conversation about ICANN’s future. We are seeking ideas from the global community to help create a new, overarching vision and five-year strategy for ICANN. An animated video and...
  • Are you passionate about Internet governance?

    If you like challenges, embrace change, are passionate about Internet governance and a fervent believer in bottom-up consensus-building, then ICANN’s Nominating Committee wants to hear from you. We are seeking volunteers who are enthusiastic about the Internet to serve on...
  • Ombudsman in Beijing

    The ICANN life seems to revolve around our meetings. In Toronto, our Communications team recorded a short video of me attending meetings and talking to our community. As we prepare for Beijing, I am excited to visit a country where some of the oldest civilizations are now...
  • Do More to Prevent DNS DDoS Attacks

    Dave Piscitello, on behalf of the ICANN Security Team In recent weeks, numerous high profile organizations and financial institutions have been targets of massive service disruption attacks. Several of these attacks are characteristically similar to attacks against top...
  • Revised Registry Agreement Posted for Review

    In the interest of transparency and accountability ICANN is providing the latest revision of the previously posted "Revised New gTLD Registry Agreement" for the community’s information and review. Clean [PDF, 458 KB] Redline [PDF, 455 KB] Summary of Changes [PDF, 155 KB]...
  • Changes to the Public Forum

    As we go into the Beijing meeting, I am struck by the manner in which ICANN meetings are defined by the open exchange of ideas. In no small way, the meetings form the foundation for discussion, agreement and often-respectful disagreement. It is not merely an opportunity...
  • WHOIS & What’s to Come

    By Margie Milam, Senior Director, Strategic Initiatives In October ICANN’s President & CEO, Fadi Chehadé, announced an ambitious plan for tackling one of ICANN’s most controversial issues—WHOIS. Undeterred by the decade’s long debate, and encouraged by the WHOIS...
  • Senior Executive Roundtable with ISPs and Telecoms

    In addition to the ccTLD CEO Roundtable in London (see blog), I was able to meet the next day, 14 March 2013, with senior executives from Internet Service Providers (ISPs) as well as from telecommunications companies (telecoms). During the course of our roundtable, we...
  • CEO Roundtable III: ccTLDs and the DNS Sector

    I was pleased to have the opportunity last week to meet with a group of ccTLDs in London, as part of a series of CEO Roundtables centered on strategic issues faced by the Domain Name System (DNS) sector. This roundtable served as a forum for the ccTLDs, from a diverse set...
  • A New Track with New G’s

    I am writing these words on a train en route back home to Washington from New York City and I’m happy to report that the train is moving just a tad faster than development of the new gTLD program. Based on my calculations, it will take considerably less than seven years...
  • Without Effective Implementation, a Policy is Just an Idea…

    Even the best policies can encounter implementation challenges. Thus, policies should be viewed as “living documents.” They need leadership, resources, monitoring, and other inputs to thrive and achieve their goals 1. The rules for formal policy development at ICANN are...
  • ICANN Coordinated Disclosure Guidelines

    The Security Team has prepared a set of guidelines to explain ICANN's Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure Reporting. The guidelines serve two purposes. They define the role ICANN will perform in circumstances where vulnerabilities are reported and ICANN determines that...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."