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  • Promoting the Digital Development of Haiti

    By Albert Daniels and Alexandra Dans On August 12, 2013 in Port au Prince, we had the opportunity to participate in AYITIC, a capacity building project specifically designed for Haiti and geared to the country’s needs. LACNIC, the Internet Address Registry for Latin...
  • The Internet House Hosts the ITU

    The regional meeting of the Americas in preparation for the World Telecommunications Development Conference organized by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) was held last week in the city of Montevideo, Uruguay. There is plenty to say on a positive note about...
  • Honoring Africa’s DNS Industry Leaders

    The future of the Internet in Africa is being shepherded by the pioneers and visionaries who grab opportunity and mold it into reality. It is crafted by those with the desire to shape the continent for the better and see their ideals come to life. It is these luminaries,...
  • Volunteers Needed for Task Force on Arabic Script IDNs

    ICANN invites interested individuals and experts from its stakeholder groups to volunteer for the Task Force on Arabic Script Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs). An action item on the implementation plan of ICANN’s Middle East Strategy Working Group (MESWG), the Task...
  • A Better New gTLD Program … With A Little Help From Our Friends

    The evolution of the New gTLD Program over the last several years has brought with it a unique and diverse set of ideas, proposals and challenges – all of them aimed at improving the program. While the ensuing community discussions may have slowed the development and...
  • Middle East Strategy Implementation is Underway

    The Middle East Strategy Working Group (MESWG) has been working hard since it presented a draft of the three-year engagement strategy at ICANN Beijing. After finalizing the strategy, the working group with 22 members from 11 countries has developed a one-year...
  • Young, African and New to ICANN

    I love talking with newcomers at ICANN meetings, particularly when they are as fresh, excited and eager to learn as the South African students and lifelong learners invited to join us in Durban. They brought unique perspectives about the realities of Internet access and...
  • New Position for Everton Lucero

    During today’s GAC Plenary session in Durban we announced that Everton Lucero our Stakeholder Engagement Manager based in Brazil will be leaving ICANN. Everton has accepted an offer to work for the Brazilian Government and long time colleague and former boss, Minister of...
  • 2013 RAA and RyA Signings Kick-off ICANN 47 in Durban

    Participants in ICANN 47 Signing Ceremony. Left to Right: Fadi Chehadé, ICANN; Frederic Guillemaut, Mail Club; Mouhamet Diop, Kheweul.com; Adrian Kinderis, ARI; Akram Atallah, ICANN; Ilya Bazlyankov, CORE; Paul Stahura, Donuts; Rob Hall, Momentous; James Bladel, GoDaddy;...
  • Small Steps for Business Engagement: Launching New Platforms

    Business is a broad category. The work of ICANN affects much of it. Every business that depends on a scalable, unified and stable Internet has a stake. That makes engagement with business both daunting and inspiring. Whether you are running a mobile payments platform in...
  • Shaping ICANN’s Future

    A multi-lingual strategic planning portal was launched last month so individuals and organizations throughout the world can help create a new, overarching vision and five-year strategic plan for ICANN. Building on previous discussions about how to help prepare ICANN for...
  • Mapping the Domain Name Industry

    Registry and registrar CEOs have been at work on a number of fronts since we gathered at a DNS Summit in New York in April. So far, the most fruitful effort has been on a series of three infographic “maps” of the domain name sector, compiled by the task forces. Clearly...
  • ICANN’s Security Terminology

    Security is at the core of what we do at ICANN to facilitate the global technical coordination of the Internet’s unique identifier systems. This post attempts to provide some clarity and context to the Security terms we use at ICANN. This baseline understanding will help...
  • Replace WHOIS with the ARDS?

    Many believed it couldn’t be done- achieve consensus on a solution to the WHOIS issue, after nearly a decade of debate in the ICANN community. In fact, that is what the Expert Working Group (EWG) has done in a remarkably short amount of time. When the Board embarked on...
  • 2013 RAA Approved by ICANN Board of Directors

    We are finally there. After a long and extensive period of discussions, negotiations and revisions, the 2013 Registrar Accreditation Agreement [PDF, 913 KB] is finally a reality. Here is a summary of the changes [PDF, 158 KB] made since the RAA was posted for public...
  • Congratulations to 2013 Internet Hall of Fame Inductees

    Dear 2013 Internet Hall of Fame Inductees, On behalf of ICANN, I would like to extend my deepest congratulations for your induction into the Internet Hall of Fame. Your contributions to the Internet have been profound and we thank you for your dedication. It is your hard...
  • 2013 RAA Submitted to ICANN Board

    The comment period for the proposed 2013 Registrar Accreditation Agreement (RAA) closed on 4 June 2013. Staff conducted a careful review of all of the comments received and has posted a summary and analysis at...
  • ICANN’s New Washington D.C. Office is Now Open

    Fadi Chehadé and Steve Crocker officially opened the new Washington DC office located at 801 17th Street Northwest during a ribbon cutting ceremony on June 13. This office serves as ICANN’s North American Engagement Center. Situated in the heart of the city, the new...
  • Streamlining the New gTLD Delegation Process

    As we march closer to the launch of new generic top-level domains, focus has shifted to the process of how the approved gTLDs become active in the domain name system. Activating a top-level domain involves making changes to the DNS root zone – a process known as “...
  • Celebrating 25 Years of .TH and Much, Much More

    Dr. Steve Crocker Visits With Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra In Bangkok, June 7 2013 Earlier this month, Dr. Stephen Crocker and I had the privilege of visiting Thailand’s capital city, Bangkok. We spent the week meeting with local Internet and business...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."