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  • ICANN Org Ends FY18 Under Budget with Operations Expenses Contained

    Now that an overview of our FY18 financials has been posted, I’d like to share a few highlights of our financial performance against the budget. All the figures I mention below are preliminary, unaudited figures. At the beginning of FY18, we projected that funding for...
  • Next Steps to More Secure Systems

    As you know, the ICANN org provides systems and platforms for the ICANN stakeholder community to collaborate. The security and stability of these systems is vital. Our Engineering and Information Technology (E&IT) teams work hard to ensure that these systems are...
  • Announcing My New Deputies

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    I am pleased to announce that I have appointed John Jeffrey, General Counsel and Secretary, and Theresa Swinehart, Senior Vice President, Multistakeholder Strategy and Strategic Initiatives, to serve as my deputies. Each member of the ICANN org Executive Team has a deputy...
  • Welcome to ICANN63

    ¡Bienvenidos! Welcome to ICANN63– our Annual General Meeting – in Barcelona, Spain. There’s quite a lot taking place this week, between the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC)’s High Level Government Meeting, celebrations for ICANN’s 20th anniversary, an impressive...
  • Executive Team Announcement

    I want to extend my warmest wishes to Akram Atallah, President, Global Domains Division, who has decided to leave ICANN org for another opportunity after eight years, effective immediately. Akram made many, significant contributions to ICANN in a variety of roles,...
  • Executive Team Update

    I am pleased to announce that Sally Newell Cohen has joined ICANN org in the role of Senior Vice President, Global Communications, responsible for the communications and language services functions, based in Los Angeles. Sally's first day is today. Most recently Sally...
  • Blog: Celebrating ICANN@20 through your recollections

    ICANN will soon be celebrating its birthday in Barcelona, specifically at ICANN63, 20-25 October 2018. This will be an historic meeting for a number of reasons, a primary one being that it will mark the 20th anniversary of ICANN's formation. It's no secret that ICANN's...
  • ICANN GDPR and Data Protection/Privacy Update

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    As part of our ongoing work together on the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and seeking clarity for any access mechanism for non-public registration data, I promised to provide regular updates. These updates and any clarity received are input into the...
  • Possible Unified Access Model Published for Community Input

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    The ICANN org has been working to further develop its proposal for a possible unified access model, in order to engage in discussions with the community and relevant data protection authorities. Following the June publication of the Framework Elements for a Unified Access...
  • Welcome to ICANN62!

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    I'm excited to welcome you to Panama City, Panama, for ICANN62. This is the second time an ICANN meeting has been held in Central America, and the first time we've come to Panama. ICANN meetings represent an important opportunity for our diverse stakeholders to meet...
  • Final Proposed FY19 Operating Plan and Budget

    Today, we published the final proposed FY19 Operating Plan and Budget and submitted it to the ICANN Board for consideration at the meeting on 30 May 2018. This is an important step in the process to ensure transparency so that you – and the rest of the ICANN community –...
  • ICANN org's Open Data Strategy

    The ICANN organization is a community-based organization and one of our defining principles is that we are an "open" organization. Our strategy for the data we hold must reflect this, and our default position must be that all of our data is open data unless there are good...
  • Improving our Planning and Preparation

    Over the last year, we all have worked hard to understand the European Commission’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) legislation. One question that has been asked many times is: why didn’t we start the process earlier? I guess there are many answers to that...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."