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  • ICANN Org’s Multifaceted Response to DNS Abuse

    While the March report from ICANN’s Domain Abuse Activity Reporting system show a general reduction in second-level gTLD domain names identified as being used in phishing, malware distribution, and botnet command and control, it has been widely reported that criminals are...
  • PIR Transaction and Proposed Public Interest Commitments Update

    Since Public Interest Registry (PIR) formally notified ICANN of the proposed change of control transaction on 14 November 2019, the ICANN org and Board have worked together to thoughtfully and thoroughly evaluate the proposed acquisition to ensure that the .ORG registry...
  • Keeping the DNS Secure During the Coronavirus Pandemic

    The Internet’s value in bringing people together has never been more apparent than it is now. While most of us are under some form of “stay at home” order in an effort to slow the spread of the coronavirus, the Internet provides us with a lifeline. It brings us...
  • Executive Team Announcement

    When there is a change in the executive leadership of the ICANN organization, it is important that we inform the community in a timely manner. Today, I would like to share with you that Cyrus Namazi, Senior Vice President of Global Domains Division (GDD), has decided to...
  • ICANN Org Issues Work-from-Home Guidance

    As the COVID-19 outbreak continues to evolve, the health and safety of the ICANN organization staff and the community remain our top priority. In situations like this, I believe it is important to communicate internal developments and ICANN org-related decisions to the...
  • ICANN Meets with Belgian Data Protection Authority

    The ICANN organization met with the Belgian Data Protection Authority (DPA) on 14 February 2020 to continue the dialogue about a possible Unified Access Model (UAM) for gTLD registration data. The meeting followed publication of ICANN org’s “Exploring a Unified Access...
  • Update on ICANN67 Planning and COVID-19 (Coronavirus)

    The ICANN Board and ICANN org have been closely monitoring COVID-19 since it was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization now considers COVID-19 a global health emergency. As we approach ICANN67 in Cancún, Mexico, we continue to...
  • .COM Public Comments and Facts

    ICANN Public Comment is a mechanism that gives the ICANN community and stakeholders an opportunity to provide input and feedback. Public Comment is used in the policy development process, and to guide implementation work, reviews, and operational activities of the ICANN...
  • Status Update on .AMAZON Applications – The Next Steps

    An important final step for all domain name applications is delegation. ICANN org is signing three Registry Agreements and Specification 13 Amendments from Amazon EU S.à r.l. (Amazon corporation) for top-level domains (TLDs) .AMAZON, .亚马逊, and .アマゾン. These signed...
  • .ORG Update

    The proposed acquisition of Public Interest Registry (PIR) by Ethos Capital was announced on 13 November 2019 by the parties and the Internet Society (ISOC). This announcement has raised many questions. In light of this, we want to be transparent about where we are in the...
  • A Blog About Leadership

    As ICANN66 comes to an end, so does an era. Nearly a decade ago, the Nominating Committee appointed Cherine Chalaby to serve on the ICANN Board of Directors. Since that time, ICANN has changed tremendously, becoming a trusted partner in the Internet governance ecosystem...
  • Welcome to ICANN66!

    Bonjour! Welcome to ICANN’s 66th Public Meeting, which is being held in Montréal, Canada. ICANN’s last Public Meeting held in Canada, ICANN45 in Toronto, was back in 2012. Quite a lot has changed since then. ICANN Public Meetings are a vital part of the multistakeholder...
  • ICANN org Seeks European Data Protection Board Input

    Today, the ICANN org sent to the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) a paper, "Exploring a Unified Access Model for gTLD Registration Data," which outlines a proposed Unified Access Model (UAM) based on the Technical Study Group's technical model. The model described in...
  • A Blog about Friendship

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    We have a Swedish saying for when someone you love passes away: He is missed in me. As you now know, our dear friend Tarek has passed away and he is missed in me. There will be many eulogies written about this remarkable man who touched so many. I think many of us have...
  • ICANN President & CEO Goals for Fiscal Year 2020

    Each year, I seek to focus the ICANN organization on strategic opportunities for improvement. A key element of this process is working with the ICANN Board to set my goals for the next fiscal year. As part of our commitment to accountability and transparency, I am sharing...
  • ICANN’s Carbon Footprint

    As you may have seen in the Operating Initiatives document put out for Public Comment earlier this year, one of the initiatives ICANN org will undertake in support of the ICANN Strategic Plan for FY 2021-2025 includes an evaluation of the long-term effectiveness,...
  • Welcome to ICANN65

    It’s my pleasure to welcome you back to Marrakech, Morocco, for ICANN65. I am pleased to return to the site of my first ICANN Public Meeting (ICANN55), especially considering how much has changed since that time. This will be an opportunity to reflect on the progress we’...
  • Evolving the Governance of the Root Server System

    Today, ICANN org is launching a Public Comment proceeding on evolving the governance of the Root Server System (RSS). We invite the ICANN community to participate in this important work. Following the IANA stewardship transition, the Root Server System Advisory Committee...
  • Next Steps for the Technical Study Group & EPDP

    During ICANN64, the Technical Study Group on Access to Non-Public Registration Data (TSG) presented a Draft Technical Model. The team took feedback from the community of a range of topics and is currently working to revise the Model to reflect the relevant comments. You...
  • Independent Review Process Standing Panel – Call to Action

    As we work collectively to complete the full implementation of the updated Independent Review Process (IRP), ICANN organization seeks community inputs on the process for the selection of a standing panel to hear IRPs. There are still open questions on how ICANN’s...
  • Welcome to ICANN64

    Welcome to Kobe, Japan, for ICANN64. As a few of you may recall, the last time an ICANN meeting was held in Japan was in the year 2000, for ICANN06. Quite a lot has changed since then, but the intention of these meetings remains the same – to come together to find...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."