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回顾:ICANN 历史项目

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布拉德·怀特访谈彼得·邓加特-斯拉什 (Peter Dengate-Thrush)


确实很讽刺,当时伊拉·马加齐纳 (Ira Magaziner) 的上司比尔·克林顿 (Bill Clinton) 总统刚刚在 1996 年的连任竞选中胜出,但马加齐纳还是深感挫败。

作为总统的高级政策顾问,马加齐纳深陷希拉里·克林顿 (Hillary Clinton) 的医疗保健改革失败中,他当时也急需一场胜利。

这位克林顿助手的机会就那样悄悄来临:总统让他提出一些保持经济增长的主意。当时克林顿的整个内阁都试图告诉克林顿在第二个任期需要着重关注的事宜。马加齐纳回忆道,他们抛给克林顿的主意都非常保守,但马加齐纳提出了一个全新的主意。

"我希望打造一个互联网框架,让互联网快速发展",这位前总统助手这样说到。

马加齐纳称克林顿接受了他的观点。但总统内阁们并不十分认同。"他们说:'互联网?那是什么东西?'然后他们耸耸肩说:'我不关心。'"

如果说温特·瑟夫 (Vint Cerf) 是众多"互联网之父"之一,那么伊拉·马加齐纳则是当之无愧的"ICANN 之父"。

正是在马加齐纳的带头下,一个国际性多利益相关方组织的计划得以制定,此举可以说是前无古人。而正是这个组织,互联网名称与数字地址分配机构,管理着互联网的域名系统 (DNS)。

马加齐纳在视频访谈中讲述了他鲜为人知的故事,该访谈属于新的 ICANN 历史项目的一部分,项目网站为:https://www.icann.org/zh/history。网站中会陆续发布更多的视频访谈。

我们访谈了在 ICANN 历史上发挥过重要作用的众多人物,除了马加齐纳,还采访了温特·瑟夫、美国国家电信和信息管理局 (NTIA) 前局长拉里·斯特科林 (Larry Strickling)

但这个历史项目不仅仅只是视频访谈。您可以找到一个交互式的时间表、众多历史文档、函件、图片等资源。随着新材料的收集和发布,此历史项目将日益壮大和不断发展。

此项目通过方方面面的轨迹或者主题讲述了 ICANN 一路走来的难忘历史。第一个主题是 ICANN 与美国政府的历史关系。最近 IANA 管理权移交的顺利完成使这一历史性关系频繁登上新闻头条。

NTIA 前局长拉里·斯特科林在一次视频访谈中告诉 ICANN,他一直深信移交会取得成功。然而互联网先驱温特·瑟夫有不同的观点,他认为从宣布移交开始,到两年多以后完成移交,移交工作"每一天"都在危险中。

这种观点的分歧是推动历史项目的其中一个因素。这也从一方面说明了我们为什么不像新闻记者一样,制作一个总体的叙述性或陈述性历史项目。我们希望人们自己下结论。

我们真诚希望历史项目能作为一面明镜,让我们在反思过去的同时更加看清 ICANN 的未来。

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    Domain Name System
    Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."