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Adding Amharic and Hebrew to the IDN wiki

The IDN wiki was launched in October 2007 to provide a test environment of IDNs that is open and available to all interested parties. The IDNwiki was initially based on the eleven example.test domains listed on the main page ( with articles and discussion in each of the indicated languages.

Although there currently are no plans for establishing further .test top-level domains, separate facets of IDNwiki can be established in additional languages. The first two such language extensions have just been made available:

Clicking on the language names, or copying and pasting the Web addresses into the address line of a browser will lead to the new areas. Further, in relation to the Hebrew addition, since there is a .test TLD label in Hebrew script, an additional address has been assigned to the Hebrew language facet of the IDNwiki — http://דוגמה.טעסט . (This is an alias for the evaluation domain and relies on the wiki server to identify the language area that is being sought.) Further details are provided in the article on Hebrew script.

If you are interested in adding any further languages to the wiki please contact me directly at

The IDNwiki is managed by the greatly valued assistance of volunteer moderators for each of the available languages. As such, one main requirement for adding languages is to make a moderator available that can manage a new language area. He or she hence need to be fluent in the language, spend time with the wiki support team to localize the language area, and will also need to work with users that may need specific assistance in that particular language.


    Domain Name System
    Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."