A Review of Our FY18 Middle East Journey
The year was filled with accomplishments as well as challenges for ICANN in the Middle East. As we build upon our accomplishments and learn from the challenges, we take this opportunity to present a report on our regional activities. But before doing so, we'd like to thank each of our community members in the Middle East for their tireless efforts and collaboration, leading us to where we are now, with a bright future of ICANN activities in the region.
The report is built upon ICANN's Middle East Global Stakeholder Engagement (GSE) team activities in FY18, with a focus on building capacity and raising awareness around ICANN and the wider Internet ecosystem. The report highlights include:
- Regional participation rates at ICANN Public Meetings
- Regional events, webinars, and workshops
- Academic engagements
- Regional studies
- Community feedback
The report also includes ICANN regional community member and participant surveys to assess the efficiency of our efforts in the region. Among them is a survey on ICANN's FY18 Middle East Engagement. To see the results of this survey, click here [PDF, 111 KB].
You can review the full report here [PDF, 480 KB], and contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for feedback or questions.
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."