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Announcements

ICANN Formalizes Relationship with ccTLD Manager for Panama

ICANN has announced today that it has signed an accountability framework with the country code...

Latin America and Caribbean Internet User Groups Finalize MOU to Create Regional At-Large Organization

The Latin American and Caribbean ("LAC") region of At Large has reached a consensus on the...

Notice: Temporary Retraction of TLD Verification Tool

ICANN is removing from circulation the TLD verification code posted on 3 December 2006. Certain...

The Internet Pavilion: Where Participation Makes the Difference

HONG KONG - 4 December 2006 - The Internet community organisations that enable the processes for...

DRAFT Procedure for Potential Conflicts between Whois Requirements and Privacy Laws

ICANN is launching a public comments period on the Procedure for Dealing with Potential...

ICANN Releases Beta TLD Verification Tool

Today ICANN released a beta version Top-Level Domain (TLD) Verification Tool. This verification...

Second Annual Report for the Office of the Ombudsman

São Paulo, ICANN Ombudsman, Frank Fowlie, has posted the Second Annual Report for the Office of...

ICANN Formalizes Relationship with ccTLD Managers for Czech Republic and Kazakhstan

ICANN has announced today that it has signed accountability frameworks with the country code top...

President's Strategy Committee Releases Draft Recommendations for Community Consideration and Announces Process for Further Consultations

ICANN's President's Strategy Committee was established in December 2005 to provide observations...

São Paulo Remote Participation Website

In a further attempt to improve outreach, participation and transparency, ICANN has built a...

ICANN Posts Summary of Comments on Management Operating Principles

As part of its commitment to continuously improving transparency and accountability, on October...

ICANN at ITU Telecom World in Hong Kong, China, 4-8 December 2006

The ITU Telecom World will take place in Hong Kong, China, from 4-8 December 2006. ICANN will...

Review of ICANN Regions

(2nd Version, reposted)

Introduction

One of the core values underlying ICANN's structure and...

Review of ICANN Regions

Introduction

One of the core values underlying ICANN's structure and operations is support for...

ICANN Opens Consultation on Latin America and the Caribbean Regional At Large Organisation Organising Instruments

As provided in the ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Section 2, part 4, an advisory process has been...

White Paper on ICANN Meetings Posted for Public Comment

ICANN is seeking feedback on the purpose and structure of the large international Board meetings...

ICANN Posts Draft Version of the 2007-2010 Strategic Plan for Comment

Based on community consultations and comments to the Issues Paper published in September, ICANN...

ICANN Nominating Committee for 2006 Completes Selections

The ICANN Nominating Committee for 2006 has completed its selections:

The Nominees

ICANN Board...

Workshop Report — Towards a Multilingual Global Internet: Avoiding the Risk of Fragmentation

1. Title: Towards a Multilingual Global Internet: Avoiding the Risk of Fragmentation, Athens, 31...

ICANN Launches Weekly Newsletter Service

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has launched a weekly newsletter...

Internationalised Domain Names Roadmap — Progress and Future

ICANN today announced a clear roadmap for the introduction of Internationalised Domain Names...

IDNA Protocol Review and Proposals for Changes

In follow up to the RFC4690 that was made available in September and announced on ...

Chairman Vint Cerf's Opening Remarks at Internet Governance Forum, Athens, Greece 30 October - 2 November 2006

Governance of the Internet: The Tasks Ahead

Vint Cerf
Chairman, ICANN

October 30, 2006
Internet...

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."