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Announcements

Webinar: ICANN Participation in the Internet Governance Forum (IGF)

You are invited to participate in an informal webinar about ICANN's participation in the...

Bulk Transfer of Names from IPXcess.com Sdn Bhd to Above.com Pty Ltd.

ICANN has authorized the bulk transfer of gTLD domain names from IPXcess.com Sdn Bhd to...

Update: The IANA Functions Infographic

ICANN today released a new IANA Functions Infographic which explains how the core IANA functions...

Fellowship Application Round Opens for ICANN 52 in Marrakech

About the Fellowship Program:

Since its creation in 2007, the Fellowship Program has had over...

ICG Charter Open for Public Comments

On July 18, the IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) produced a draft charter...

ICANN Grants Data Retention Waiver to ingenit GmbH

DATA RETENTION WAIVER
ingenit GmbH & Co. KG

ingenit GmbH & Co. KG ("Registrar")...

Largest Ever ICANN Meeting Convenes in London | Affirmation of Multistakeholder Model for Internet Governance by World Leaders

More than 3,300 people from around the world have registered for ICANN's 50th meeting in London,...

Update on Root Zone Label Generation Rule Generation Panel Formation

As we approach ICANN 50, ICANN is pleased to share the steady momentum of the development on the...

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."