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解决域名冲突所带来的后果

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根据ICANN董事会于2013年5月8日提出的指导意见,ICANN授权并于今天发布了一项调查研究的结果,审查申请阶段中新gTLD字符串和非授权顶级域名之间在域名空间出现冲突的可能性及其所带来的影响。另外,该项研究还审核了使用X.509数字证书时出现冲突的可能性。

背景:在2013年1月发布的一份研究中指出,ICANN安全与稳定咨询委员会(SSAC)发现,有些证书授权机构对一些无法在公共域名系统进行解析的域名也发放了X.509证书。在SAC057号报告和SAC045号报告中同时指出,某些具有本地环境的实体若拥有大量的顶级域名数,和/或在私营域名空间中引入了本地顶级域名,就有可能会与尚未分配的域名出现冲突。这些私营域名空间有时会"渗漏"进公共域名空间(由于配置不当或使用过时软件),即对私营网络资源的请求可能会对公众使用的域名系统根服务器提出质疑,从而与已授权的新gTLD出现"冲突"。

调查研究: 2013年5月18日,ICANN董事会通过了一项决议,号召对域名冲突问题进行详细调查。ICANN与Interisle Consulting Group, LLC公司签署了合约,以搜集并分析所有申请阶段字符串的必要数据。

有关 《域名系统中的域名冲突》 [PDF文件,3.34 MB] 的研究结果根据域名冲突风险出现的可能性将字符串分成了三大类:

  • 低风险: 80%的申请字符串。
  • 未计划风险: 20%的申请字符串。
  • 高风险: 两个字符串(即:".home"和".corp")。

为了最小化任何影响出现的可能性,ICANN同时提交了一份员工建议文件,即 《新gTLD冲突风险管理》 [PDF文件,166 KB],向社群提议采取多项缓和措施。它们包括:

  • 继续与"低风险"(80%)类别的字符串进行签约和授权,但推荐采纳不会实质性影响其授权时间表的额外缓和措施。
  • 针对"未计划风险"(20%)类别的字符串进行进一步的调查研究,预计3-6个月完成。
  • 针对两个"高风险"字符串需要延迟签约和授权,直至采取缓和措施后,再次将其归纳在"低风险"的类别中。

新gTLD的安全性与稳定性: 在整个新gTLD项目制定过程中,域名系统的安全性与稳定性一直是ICANN社群最为关注的问题。ICANN员工编制了一份信息纪要,即《安全与稳定地引入新gTLD》 [PDF文件,102 KB],描述了ICANN已经采取的措施,以确保新gTLD的引入不会给这一承诺带来负面影响。

公众意见: 此时,员工建议文件中提出的缓和措施仅为提议,还需社群对此踊跃发表意见。因此,ICANN启动了一项征询公众意见的正式程序。此处提供提交公众意见所需填写的表格和公众评议期时间表。

统一漏洞披露流程:ICANN借此机会通知社群,ICANN已经对其风险管理程序进行了更新,改进了针对新gTLD授权过程中出现的任何非预见问题的报告和回应机制。在此敦促社群成员熟悉这些流程,具体请参考此处 [PDF文件,628 KB]。


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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."