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实施通知 – 《IDN 准则》 第 3.0 版

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在 2011 年 10 月的塞内加尔达喀尔会议上, ICANN 理事会采纳了《国际化域名实施准则》第 3.0 版, 今天, ICANN 正式发布通知实施该准则。《IDN 准则》根据 IETF 提出的 "应用程序中的国际化域名" (IDNA) 协议标准, 列出了所有顶级域名注册管理机构部署 IDN 时应遵循的一般标准。

《准则》文件由 IDN 准则修订工作组制订(工作组由ccTLD和gTLD注册管理机构代表组成, 期间由ICANN 工作人员提供 IDN 方面的经验)。新版《准则》根据 IDNA 初步协议 ("IDNA2003") 的 IDNABIS 修订版("IDNA2008 协议"), 对当前的第 2.2 版进行了相应的修改。ICANN 之前已发布准则草案来征询公众意见(请参阅 http://www.icann.org/en/public-comment/idn-guidelines-revision-27jul11-en.htm)。在 2011 年 10 月 28 日召开的理事会会议上, ICANN理事会批准了《IDN准则》第 3.0 版。提供 IDN 注册服务的注册管理机构应开始着手向《IDN 准则》第 3.0 版过渡。

"应用程序中的国际化域名" (IDNA) 协议是各 TLD 注册管理机构、注册服务商以及为客户提供 IDN 支持的软件开发商在实施 IDN 过程中应遵循的技术标准。有关 IDNA 协议的参考信息及有关 2008 年修订版的更多详细信息, 请访问: http://www.icann.org/en/topics/idn/rfcs.htm


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."