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IDN Variant TLD Case Study Update

On April 20, 2011, ICANN announced its approach to move forward with the IDN Variant TLDs Issues Project by publishing the Final Proposal for the Project [PDF, 195 KB] and the Call for Volunteers [PDF, 112 KB]. This project is dedicated to identifying the issues involved in the delegation of IDN Variant TLDs.

Today, we are pleased to announce the formation of six case study teams, comprising a total of 66 experts from 29 countries and territories. In addition, six organizations are in the process of being selected to be local hosts for each of the case studies. A local host organization will provide meeting and other facilities to support the case studies work. A decision and announcement will follow shortly.

Individual members are listed at the end of this announcement and they offer expertise in the following areas: DNS, IDNA, linguistics, security & scalability, policy, registry/registrar operations, and community representatives.

On Saturday, 18 June 2011, all-day project team meetings are being planned in Singapore at which the case study teams will meet together in plenary sessions and in individual breakout working sessions.

Interested members of the community can receive updates and participate in the discussions of this work by subscribing to mailing list ( or by visiting

Arabic Case Study

  1. Sarmad Hussain (Coordinator)
  2. Abdulaziz Al-Zoman
  3. Behnam Esfahbod
  4. Fahd A. Batayneh
  5. Huda Sarfraz
  6. Khaled Koubaa
  7. Manal Ismail
  8. Mohamed El-Bashir
  9. Raed Al-Fayez
  10. Siavash Shahshahani
  11. Syed Iftikhar H. Shah

Chinese Case Study

  1. Xiaodong Lee (Coordinator)
  2. Chris Dillon
  3. Hong Xue
  4. James Seng
  5. Jian Zhang
  6. Joe Zhang
  7. Jonathan Shea
  8. Joseph Yee
  9. June Seo
  10. Shianyong Tseng
  11. Wei Wang
  12. Yoshiro Yoneya

Cyrillic Case Study

  1. Alexey Sozonov (Coordinator)
  2. Alexei Mykhaylov
  3. Alexey Ptashniy
  4. Daniel Kalchev
  5. Iliya Bazlyankov
  6. Oksana Prykhodko
  7. Saso Dimitrijoski
  8. Sergey Sharikov
  9. Vladimir Shadrunov

Devanagari Case Study

  1. Dr. Govind (Coordinator)
  2. Amardeep Singh Chawla
  3. Bal Krishna Bal
  4. Basanta shrestha
  5. Bhavin Turakhia
  6. James Galvin
  7. Jitender Kumar
  8. K. B. Narayanan
  9. Kalyan Kale
  10. Mahesh Kulkarni
  11. Manish Dalal
  12. Prabhakar Kshotriya
  13. Pramod Pandey
  14. Raiomond Doctor
  15. Rajiv Kumar
  16. Satyendra Kumar Pandey
  17. Shashi Bharadwaj
  18. Tulika Pandey

Greek Case Study

  1. Vaggelis Segredakis (Coordinator)
  2. Asimina Giannopoulou
  3. Catherine Tsapikidou
  4. Evangelos Melagrakis
  5. Fotia Panayiotou
  6. George Papapavlou
  7. Giannis Papaioannou
  8. Panagiotis Papaspiliopoulos

Latin Case Study

  1. Jothan Frakes (Coordinator)
  2. Andrzej Bartosiewicz
  3. Cary Karp
  4. Eric Brown
  5. Francisco Obispo
  6. Giovanni Seppia
  7. Wil Tan
  8. Will Shorter


  • The joint ccNSO-GNSO Working Group on IDNs (JIG) will appoint an observer for each case study.

More Announcements
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."