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ccNSO Review – External Reviewers' Final Report for Public Comment | Public Comment Deadline: 30 July 2010

Updated: 12 August 2010

In November 2009, ICANN appointed ITEMS International to carry out the external review of its country code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO)

ITEMS International has delivered its recommendations and conclusions in a final report based on a survey and interviews conducted. This final report [PDF, 5.04 MB] is now released for consultation and submitted for public comment.

العربية [4.6 MB] Español [4.79 MB] Français [4.37 MB] Русский [5.04 MB] 中文 [7.09 MB]

The community is invited to participate in this round of consultation by 30 July 2010 and to provide the ccNSO Review WG with input on the report via: http://www.icann.org/en/public-comment/public-comment-201007-en.htm#ccnso-external.

ITEMS International will present the outcome of the external review in Brussels on Wednesday, 23 June during the ccNSO meeting.

For further information, please refer to the ccNSO review web page.


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."