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提案征询:根区调整流程研究

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洛杉矶——2020 年 4 月 28 日——互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN) 现宣布启动一轮提案征询 (request for proposal, RFP),征召一名合格承包商针对域名系统 (Domain Name System, DNS) 的最高层级(即根区)进行调整的流程和系统展开一轮研究。

这项研究旨在调查是否需要增强(若需要将如何增强)对根区内容进行调整的运营安排,识别可能存在的单点故障,且如果这类故障存在,则提出减少或消除故障的建议。启动本研究源于一份提案 [PDF, 2.31 MB],即将互联网号码分配机构 (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IANA) 的职能管理权移交给一家私营企业的提案。该承包商将撰写一篇研究结果论文,并提出建议来应对调查结果中所识别的任何弱点。

从历史角度来看,美国商务部 (U.S. Department of Commerce, DoC) 曾在协调和管理 DNS 方面扮演着积极的角色。经过近 20 年的漫长流程后,商务部最终于 2016 年 10 月 1 日将其职责移交给了一家私营企业。这项工作也从属于 IANA 管理权移交事务的一部分。作为管理权移交规划的一部分,IANA 管理权移交协调小组 (IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group, ICG) 于 2016 年 3 月发布了一份提案,即《美国商务部国家电信和信息管理局 (National Telecommunications and Information Administration, NTIA) 向全球多利益相关方移交互联网号码分配机构 (IANA) 职能管理权的移交提案》。这份文件提出了一套方案来执行移交,并纳入了额外建议,包括呼吁启动一轮正式研究在 NTIA 退出参与后审视根区的运营程序和调整方式。这轮 RFP 将征召一名提供商来执行 ICG 提案中描述的这项研究。

如需查看本 RFP 的完整信息,包括时间表,请参见此处 [PDF, 268 KB]。

请将《意向书》采用电子邮件的方式发送至:RZUPStudy-RFP@icann.org。所有提案应当在世界协调时 (UTC) 2020 年 6 月 12 日 23:59 时前通过 ICANN 采购工具以电子形式发送。如需访问这套工具,请向上述电子邮箱发送请求。

ICANN 简介

ICANN 的使命在于确保全球互联网的稳定、安全与统一。在互联网上寻找另一个人的信息,您必须在您的电脑或其他设备中键入一个地址——可以是一个名称或是一串数字。这一地址必须是独一无二的,只有这样电脑之间才能互相识别。ICANN 则负责协调这些分布在全球各地的唯一标识符。ICANN 成立于 1998 年,是一家非营利公益型企业,其社群成员遍布全球各地。


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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."